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The Double Burden of Female Protracted Displacement : Survey Evidence on Gendered Livelihoods in El Fasher, Darfur (English)

During protracted displacement, women and girls often face serious gender-specific challenges and vulnerabilities, including adverse norms and institutional barriers. Yet, quantitative evidence on gendered drivers and differentials during protracted displacement remains scarce. Using survey data from 18,533 displaced and non-displaced individuals in El Fasher, Sudan, this paper documents that livelihood outcomes are significantly shaped by strong and complex intersectionality between long-term displacement and gender. Being female and being a long-term displaced person have separate negative impacts on work and welfare. Therefore, being a long-term displaced woman is particularly challenging: internally displaced women work more than non–internally displaced women but are poorer, on average. For men, there is no such difference in employment between the internally displaced and non–internally displaced. These outcomes are the result of the ‘double burden of female displacement’: women are disadvantaged by norms and institutions both at their destination (due to being a displaced person) and their place of origin (due to their gender). The double burden is strongest for older displaced women. In contrast, protracted displacement can be an opportunity for younger displaced women. Future policies should address the challenges stemming from the intersectionality of gender and displacement and develop targeted programs.

Details

  • Author

    Stojetz,Wolfgang Brück,Tilman

  • Document Date

    2021/10/28

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS9824

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Sudan,

  • Region

    Africa East,

  • Disclosure Date

    2021/10/28

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    The Double Burden of Female Protracted Displacement : Survey Evidence on Gendered Livelihoods in El Fasher, Darfur

  • Keywords

    place of origin; lack of access to markets; awareness of gender issue; gender gap in employment; women in developing countries; employment outcome; forced displacement; Internally Displaced Person; education and health; access to land; household and individual; exposure to violence; Gender-Based Violence; local labor market; forms of employment; survey data; constraints to entrepreneurship; female genital mutilation; wages and salary; people in poverty; measure of poverty; role of gender; interest due; difference in poverty; use contraceptive; un general assembly; number of girls; risk and vulnerability; female labor supply; parameter of interest; effects of gender; dimension of gender; burden of proof; interactions between individual; labor market outcome; implications for policy; Applied Economic Research; development over time; years of schooling; mental health issues; lack of food; violence against woman; social and institutional; education and gender; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; double burden; agriculture sector; gender inequalities; Gender Inequality; employment status; multiple regression; host population; sustainable livelihood; Displaced Population; institutional barrier; Public Goods; institutional factor; young age; livelihood strategy; land access; household size; land use; rebel group; Learning and Innovation Credit; age distribution; individual life; gender lens; average household; marginal effect; agricultural livelihoods; poverty gap; human capital; household level; in school; empirical analysis; rural area; gender composition; internal displacement; Gender Equality; male adult; baseline estimates; linear model; agricultural self-employment; account advance rate; Natural Resources; quantitative evidence; Land Ownership; gender dimension; population size; livelihood opportunity; measurement error; Peace Talks; informal constraint; descriptive statistic; traditional norm; gender indicator; oil revenue; peace agreement; data quality; transitional period; democratic transition; good information; demographic composition; Public Transport; solid material; negative value; economic integration; spatial variation; gradual transition; resource levels; productive asset; poor hygiene; young person; ethnic line; young people; recent studies; new house; traditional structures; adult female; standard error; female population; political participation; legal support; common law; non-governmental organization; standard deviation; interaction effect; tax collection; employment opportunity; survey sample; employment opportunities; livelihood choice; humanitarian emergency; low share; regression model; enumeration area; institutional outcome; political settlement; international community; economic crisis; legal discrimination; formal employment; women's empowerment; water scarcity; agricultural plot; female adult; recent history; demographic indicator; state capacity; public affair; land administration; feminist analysis; economic geography; recent years; empirical research; time horizon; land-use change; humanitarian assistance; labour market; emergency shelter; gender perspective; multiple sources; global equity; older woman; standard approach; individual level; ornamental crop; young woman; crisis setting; employment gap; higher literacy; similar age; peace research; sustainable peace; political transformation; Forced Migration; earnings inequality; agricultural economics; household behavior; targeted program; open access; development policy; identity politics; health condition; Informal Economy; Research Support; research observer; Agricultural Extension; coping strategy; development study; global knowledge; research assistance; doctoral dissertation; empirical advances; informal labor; property owner; traumatic event; recent work; agricultural production; gender disparity; formal schooling; price change; small area; negative correlation; Host Communities; environmental degradation; employment increase; Early childhood

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Citation

Stojetz,Wolfgang Brück,Tilman

The Double Burden of Female Protracted Displacement : Survey Evidence on Gendered Livelihoods in El Fasher, Darfur (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9824 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/582571635477505457/The-Double-Burden-of-Female-Protracted-Displacement-Survey-Evidence-on-Gendered-Livelihoods-in-El-Fasher-Darfur