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China - From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality in China : Main report (Chinese)

China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty, in both the poverty rate and the number of poor, occurred during the 6th, 8th, and 10th plans. During the 7th plan period the number of poor actually rose, while in the 9th plan period, the poverty rate declined only marginally. But the pace of poverty reduction resumed between 2001 and 2004 and there are indications that during the first couple of years of the 11th plan poverty has continued to decline rapidly. The most recent official estimate of rural poverty in China for 2007 puts the number of poor at 14.79 million, or less than 2 percent of the rural population. While there is no official urban poverty line, estimates by others have found poverty levels in urban areas to be negligible using an urban poverty line that is comparable to the official poverty line for rural areas. These estimates thus suggest that only about 1 percent of China's population is currently in extreme poverty. Notwithstanding this tremendous success, the central thesis of this report is that the task of poverty reduction in many ways continues and in some respects has become more demanding.


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    Poverty Assessment

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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  • Doc Name

    Main report

  • Keywords

    food for work;township and village enterprise;labor force participation rate;monitoring and evaluation capacity;relative risk of poverty;rise in income inequality;junior high school education;headcount index of poverty;high school enrollment rate;millennium development goal;household per capita income;official poverty line;rural area;social assistance program;concentration of poverty;poverty reduction effort;human capital endowment;urban labor market;vulnerability to poverty;poverty reduction program;social insurance program;incidence of poverty;international poverty standard;exposure to risk;iron rice bowl;Poverty & Inequality;conception poverty;decline in poverty;social insurance coverage;destination of migrant;urban labor force;disparity in income;public service delivery;reduction in tax;local government revenue;urban poverty line;poverty alleviation program;local fiscal resource;social protection system;access to health;secondary school education;elasticity of poverty;analysis of variance;return to education;rising wage inequality;relative poverty rate;economic growth rate;household survey data;information on migration;infant survival rate;building human capacity;reduction in poverty;equity of opportunity;food poverty line;incidence of consumption;consumer price index;determinants of poverty;form of poverty;weights and measure;risk management strategy;bottom income quintile;state industrial sector;rural labor force;social protection program;subjective poverty line;household saving rate;security of tenure;square poverty gap;productivity of land;affordable basic education;human development indicator;distribution of expenditure;concentration of land;increase in inequality;scale of migration;cost of living;number of beneficiaries;central government funding;income from agriculture;junior secondary level;pension insurance system;provision of health;Rural Poor;poor village;local resident;rural population;international standard;rural migrant;migrant worker;



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China - From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality in China : Main report (Chinese). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.