Skip to Main Navigation

Gender-Segregated Transportation in Ride-Hailing : Navigating the Debate (English)

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc across the world. But several countries are beginning to gradually reopen their economies. As people look to get back to work, a growing number of employers, local governments, and transportation authorities are asking not only how to revive transportation systems but also how to ensure that in a post-pandemic world they are accessible, affordable, and safe for all. Inclusive, safe, and affordable transportation is even more crucial for women. Without inclusive transportation, women are denied their right to move freely in public spaces and are less likely to find good jobs. Women face barriers both as passengers and transportation service providers, ranging from underrepresentation across the sector to widespread safety and security concerns. The public sector has long looked to gender-segregated offerings, such as women-only train carriages, as one potential solution to address women’s transportation needs, though not without substantial debate. Increasingly, the private sector is looking to the same solution, trying to attract women as drivers and riders, most notably in the emerging ride-hailing industry. To date no analysis has considered the success of these efforts in increasing women’s mobility, as riders or drivers. This discussion paper takes a first step toward analyzing the development and business impact of gender-segregated transportation in the private sector, drawing on interviews with over 30 companies and newly available data. It finds that ride-hailing and other individual forms of transportation are widely adopting women-only services, and seven distinct models are emerging. Each of these models presents distinct opportunities for women as drivers and riders, but also faces considerable operational barriers. This paper unpacks the debate surrounding segregated services and if they can support women, while offering suggestions for the future.


  • Author


  • Document Date


  • Document Type


  • Report Number


  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country


  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date


  • Disclosure Status


  • Doc Name

    Gender-Segregated Transportation in Ride-Hailing : Navigating the Debate

  • Keywords

    right of freedom of movement; lack of access to education; low barriers to entry; Gender-Based Violence; barrier to woman; access to job; means of transportation; lack of woman; research on woman; proportion of woman; transportation woman; barrier to entry; opportunity between woman; forms of transportation; choice of transportation; form of transit; types of trip; study on gender; attitudes toward women; transportation service provider; Gender and Transportation; opportunity for woman; number of women; public transport worker; above market rate; violence against woman; improved working condition; public opinion survey; availability of transport; families with child; use of transportation; time of day; lack of facilities; hours of operation; mobility for woman; future of work; women driver; mass transit; security concern; Transport Systems; public space; female driver; Gender Equality; safe transportation; survey results; personal security; transport industry; corporate client; sexual harassment; market study; other barriers; commercial success; gender segregation; subway car; Labor Market; cultural context; employment opportunity; security feature; employment opportunities; Market Studies; transport specialist; transportation need; social mores; transport mode; gender difference; significant challenge; wait area; transport education; negative effect; safe choices; household management; working woman; literature review; nonwork trips; security measure; oil transport; geographical restrictions; price premium; security risk; transportation choice; public reporting; global spread; emergency response; mobility need; accessible service; Public Services; transport pattern; urban transport; driving pattern; job prospects; long-term impact; transport company; split shift; quantitative evaluation; survey data; entrepreneurial opportunity; new model; economic emancipation; male peers; financial exclusion; digital exclusion; cost benefit; annual meetings travel; disposable income; Health Service; diverse transportation; Cash flow; peak demand; entrepreneurial activity; average earning; digital inclusion; financial concern; low rate; commercial license; high fare; metro system; behavioral change; gender specialist; public place; sex segregation; policy perspective; long-term effect; body language; railway system; societal issues; efficient transport; transport provision; transportation issues; international expert; transportation challenge; virtuous cycle; transport accessibility; shift work; physical mobility; societal level; rush hour; individual level; trip time; international transportation; mobility pattern; women's right; price sensitivity; short trip; trip length; overseas migration; social constraint; long-distance commuting; Public Transportation; ticket vendor; mass transport; big city; travel pattern; transit vehicle; parking structure; train car; bus stop; security challenge; informal sector; public transportation mode; career development; job loss; social barrier; physical violence; occupational segregation; sex discrimination; gender stereotyping; work environment; transportation authority; affordable transportation; gender identity; several countries; business impact; available data; food delivery; logistics service; transportation sector; transport service; base price; regulatory barrier; subsidiary right; women's empowerment; knowledge creation; technical error; demand peak; private capital; sustainable outcomes; delivery model



Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.



Gender-Segregated Transportation in Ride-Hailing : Navigating the Debate (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.