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Male outmigration and women's work and empowerment in agriculture : the case of Nepal and Senegal (English)

Attention to the implications of rural outmigration is growing, but little evidence exists on its association with women in agriculture. Migration affects women’s work and empowerment mainly through the loss of migrants’ labor and through the flow of remittances. The fact that migration may alter women’s intrahousehold decision-making processes has received limited coverage and attention. It is also important to distinguish between the various aspects of empowerment. The complex issue of rural outmigration also has implications for household food security. To address these existing knowledge gaps in a framework that combines gender, migration, and food security, this study exploits a rich, comprehensive survey that collected detailed information on all types of outmigration from rural areas in Nepal and Senegal. The objective of this study is to examine the linkages between migration and women’s work and empowerment in agriculture in Nepal and Senegal. In particular, this analysis seeks to understand: (i) how outmigration influences women’s work in agriculture; (ii) the consequences of male-dominated migration on gender roles and women’s empowerment; and (iii) whether and how outmigration impacts household food security. The study finds that male outmigration from rural, primarily agricultural areas is not linked to a decrease in women’s employment, but it is associated with significant changes in women’s roles in agriculture. The study reveals that male-dominated outmigration may not always be associated with women’s empowerment. The consequences of migration on household food security are country-specific and mediated by the receipt of remittances.


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    Kar,Anuja, Slavchevska,Vanya, Kaaria,Susan, Taivalmaa, Sanna Lisa, Mane, Erdgin, Ciacci, Riccardo, Hoberg,Yurie Tanimichi, Townsend,Robert, Stanley,Victoria

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    The World Region, Other,

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    Male outmigration and women's work and empowerment in agriculture : the case of Nepal and Senegal

  • Keywords

    productive use of remittance; lack of access to markets; individual characteristic; extremely low population density; access to financial service; household food security; impact of migration; migrant; rural area; empowerment of woman; Women in Agriculture; cost of remittance; food insecurity; women's empowerment; household food insecurity; labor market outcome; access to information; Agricultural Value Chain; consequence of migration; flow of remittance; gross domestic product; information on migration; money management skill; situation of women; effects of migration; cost of research; investments in agriculture; environment for woman; contributing family workers; ownership of asset; role of remittance; agricultural labor force; composition of migration; food security status; pattern of migration; share of woman; status of woman; source of financing; agricultural extension service; internal migration; migrant household; migration status; international migrant; farm activity; female farmer; farm activities; employment outcome; household questionnaire; rural woman; agricultural production; agriculture sector; internal migrant; survey sample; family farming; extended family; agricultural area; labor allocation; migrant labor; collected information; household head; migrant husbands; unpaid work; future research; financial account; working-age women; wage employment; gender norm; send remittance; subsistence agriculture; off-farm employment; productive activity; household characteristic; migration experience; labor supply; significant correlation; traditional gender; socioeconomic change; household survey; national migrants; remittance corridor; rural community; migration flow; economic empowerment; legal framework; smaller share; agricultural sector; employment research; remittance channel; domestic migration; hill area; financial difficulties; high remittance; empirical findings; agricultural land; labor-intensive crop; farm management; survey questionnaire; agricultural practice; positive relationship; empirical study; lost income; existing knowledge; crop production; livestock rearing; limited coverage; primary data; household use; emigration trend; remittance transfer; private agency; migrant man; agricultural income; labor share; household demographics; financial source; migrant remittance; study area; supply chain; negative effect; household income; female extension; migration costs; local group; public awareness; gender balance; decentralized government; agriculture extension; heavily dependent; basic household; panel data; survey respondent; qualitative research; push factor; quantitative research; political upheaval; high share; targeted intervention; cultural norm; knowledge gap; policy target; national capacity; productive purposes; baseline information; nationwide survey; quantitative analysis; poverty alleviation; work burden; emigration rate; small holder; geographic coverage; remittance cost; limited resources; innovative feature; domestic policies; family migration; migration episode; ecological zone; administrative support; non-governmental organization; copyright owner; younger generation; elderly couple; working age; composite index; noncommercial purposes; reservation wage; subsidiary right; sole responsibility; original work; survey data; migration modules



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Kar,Anuja Slavchevska,Vanya Kaaria,Susan Taivalmaa, Sanna Lisa Mane, Erdgin Ciacci, Riccardo Hoberg,Yurie Tanimichi Townsend,Robert Stanley,Victoria

Male outmigration and women's work and empowerment in agriculture : the case of Nepal and Senegal (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.