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Critical Connections : Promoting Economic Growth and Resilience in Europe and Central Asia (Vol. 2) : Main report (English)

The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region has a rich history of regional integration and connectivity to the broader world economy, which has stimulated the growth of knowledge and technological innovation. Indeed, through migration, trade, investments, and other interactions, ECA countries have depended on, and benefited from, connectivity with other countries for centuries. A key insight of this report is that ECA’s international connectivity through trade, foreign direct investment, migration, telecommunications, transportation, and other avenues facilitates the transfers of knowledge and technology that are critical to long-term growth and shared prosperity. These connections complement one another because of the tacit (learning by doing), rather than explicit (contained in books or blueprints), nature of knowledge transfers. Migration, for example, enhances knowledge spillovers through trade and foreign investment by migrants transferring information on foreign markets and supporting connections to them. Similarly, the internet and efficient transport links are both necessary for successful e-commerce. This short publication summarizes the main findings of the World Bank flagship study Critical Connections. Critical Connections was born out of the desire to help policy makers focustheir attention on their long-term goals of regional and global integration to capture the benefits of connectivity, from which ECA countries had advanced so far during the early years of market expansion in the 1990s and early 2000s. Its primary purpose is to offer a deep analysis of ECA connectivity and how it has evolved over the past two decades. In a key innovation of the study, a network analysis measure of multidimensional connectivity captures the relationship between different forms of connectivity and their joint impacts on growth and the transmission of shocks.


  • Author

    Gould,David Michael, Abate,Megersa Abera, Artuc,Erhan, Bamieh,Omar, Briceno-Garmendia,Cecilia M., Fiorini,Matteo, Hoekman,Bernard M., Kenett,Dror Yossef, Lebrand,Mathilde Sylvie Maria, López-Garcia,Paloma, Özden,Çag˘lar, Panterov,Georgi Lyudmilov, Rocha,Nadia, Taglioni,Daria, Tan,Shawn Weiming, Varela,Gonzalo J., Winkler,Hernan Jorge, Yde-Jensen,Thea

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  • Country

    Europe and Central Asia,

  • Region

    Europe and Central Asia,

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  • Doc Name

    Main report

  • Keywords

    Center for Economic Studies; preferential trade agreement; Poverty and Equity; trim trade; product market regulation; bilateral investment treaty; global value chain; international civil aviation organization; Growth and Shared Prosperity; information and communication technology; foreign direct investment; global financial crisis; labor market outcome; trade and competitiveness; transfer of knowledge; labor market integration; small business economics; knowledge and learning; tax haven country; disaster risk management; nature of knowledge; learning by doing; global labor mobility; medical brain drain; per capita basis; climate change adaptation; design of information; Public Sector Enterprises; global economic integration; trade facilitation issues; impact of migrants; access to finance; trade and gender; bilateral trade agreement; elasticity of export; Poverty & Inequality; multilateral trading system; bilateral investment agreement; domestic value added; freight transport services; foreign value added; air transport regulation; export value; civil aviation authority; Transport and ICT; total factor productivity; supervision and guidance; labor market institution; privileges and immunity; Public Sector Organizations; gross domestic product; benefits of globalization; country development strategy; supply chain; research focus; Technology Transfer; International Trade; tertiary student; gross exports; global integration; aggregate energy; peer-reviewed journal; container transport; income growth; external shock; productivity growth; international connectivity; global economy; Economic Policy; technology flow; Financial Stability; labor productivity; positive spillover; Regional Studies; manufactured goods; home country; regression results; Political Economy; external demand; foreign ownership; efficient transport; knowledge spillover; long-term growth; production network; economic geography; Trade Policy; Trade Policies; firm productivity; undergraduate degree; home countries; corridor development; business cycle; connectivity index; unemployment rate; firm growth; legal framework; federal reserve; economic research; working-age population; source country; transportation economics; transport network; Temporary Migration; temporary employment; strategic issue; transport economist; freight demand; road transport; trade network; systemic risk; Migration Policies; business environment; negative shock; market structure; financial economist; disruptive technology; organizational system; international mobility; financial contagion; software engineering; monitoring tool; political participation; investment policy; freer trade; limited infrastructure; open policy; geographical position; open door; knowledge creation; knowledge diffusion; foreign market; migrant transfer; background image; gravity model; connecting cities; market expansion; cross-border production; banking sector; macroeconomic risk; study abroad; international network; commercial purpose; world economy; deep integration; firm linkage; emerging economy; Emerging economies; european commission; iso standard; maximum likelihood; fiscal deficit; territorial units; nontariff measure; original work; sole responsibility; road infrastructure; business association; copyright owner; logistics group; interior design; trade issue; intraregional trade; financial flow; connectivity ranking; trade costs; machine learning; academic journal; competition policy; foreign affiliate; online sale; payment system; age composition; immigrant population; employment growth; research topic; political institution; multinational company; transition countries; global connectivity; technological change; multinational companies; transition country; market access



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Gould,David Michael Abate,Megersa Abera Artuc,Erhan Bamieh,Omar Briceno-Garmendia,Cecilia M. Fiorini,Matteo Hoekman,Bernard M. Kenett,Dror Yossef Lebrand,Mathilde Sylvie Maria López-Garcia,Paloma Özden,Çag˘lar Panterov,Georgi Lyudmilov Rocha,Nadia Taglioni,Daria Tan,Shawn Weiming Varela,Gonzalo J. Winkler,Hernan Jorge Yde-Jensen,Thea

Critical Connections : Promoting Economic Growth and Resilience in Europe and Central Asia (Vol. 2) : Main report (English). Europe and Central Asia Studies Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.