Skip to Main Navigation

Jobs' Amenability to Working from Home : Evidence from Skills Surveys for 53 Countries : Jobs' Amenability to Working from Home : Evidence from Skills Surveys for 53 Countries (English)

The spread of COVID-19 and implementation of "social distancing" policies around the world have raised the question of how many jobs can be done at home. This paper uses skills surveys from 53 countries at varying levels of economic development to estimate jobs' amenability to working from home. The paper considers jobs' characteristics and uses internet access at home as an important determinant of working from home. The findings indicate that the amenability of jobs to working from home increases with the level of economic development of the country. This is driven by jobs in poor countries being more intensive in physical/manual tasks, using less information and communications technology, and having poorer internet connectivity at home. Women, college graduates, and salaried and formal workers have jobs that are more amenable to working from home than the average worker. The opposite holds for workers in hotels and restaurants, construction, agriculture, and commerce. The paper finds that the crisis may exacerbate inequities between and within countries. It also finds that occupations explain less than half of the variability in the working-from-home indexes within countries, which highlights the importance of using individual-level data to assess jobs’ amenability to working from home.


  • Author

    Hatayama,Maho, Viollaz,Mariana, Winkler-Seales,Hernan Jorge

  • Document Date


  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number


  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country


  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date


  • Disclosure Status


  • Doc Name

    Jobs' Amenability to Working from Home : Evidence from Skills Surveys for 53 Countries

  • Keywords

    availability of internet access; information and communication technology; home internet access; country fixed effect; social protection program; social security contribution; binary choice model; less educated peers; access to internet; labor market information; labor force survey; lack of connectivity; less developed country; social insurance benefit; standard deviation; internet connectivity; internet connection; social distance; college graduate; informal worker; average worker; older worker; gender education; repair equipment; in work; collected information; salaried worker; richer countries; horizontal axis; technology adoption; professional worker; programming language; chat group; spreadsheet software; sales worker; missing value; oecd countries; index frequency; high share; occupational category; individual level; open access; development policy; relative ranking; low share; robustness check; environmental issue; Homebased Work; financial matter; employment share; wireless internet; cross-country differences; broadband infrastructure; digital technology; unequal access; telephone access; total employment; Tax Administration; cross-country variation; physical fitness; telephone line; vulnerable countries; electronic equipment; rural area; salaried employment; manual job; young age; occupational requirement; communications technology; cross-country comparison; equal weight; standard error; job characteristic; equipment repair; specialized equipment; manual skill; household survey; Junior Professional; laboratory research; index managers; Research Support; individual characteristic; heavy machinery; professional service; electronic device; insurance activity; empirical result; substantial variation; social work; Real estate



Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.


Hatayama,Maho Viollaz,Mariana Winkler-Seales,Hernan Jorge

Jobs' Amenability to Working from Home : Evidence from Skills Surveys for 53 Countries : Jobs' Amenability to Working from Home : Evidence from Skills Surveys for 53 Countries (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9241 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.