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Trade restrictions and reforms by developing countries in the 1980s (English)

Free trade affects two components of growth: a) domestic saving and investment and foreign investment increase as a result of a more favorable climate for economic activity, and b) with foreign investment, prospects for technological innovation improve. Despite various trade liberalization attempts by developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s, most developing countries still had restrictive trade regimes in the early 1980s. Empirical studies give ample evidence that open, outward-looking developing economies have better growth records than more restrictive ones. This study presents a brief survey of the trade restriction systems common in developing countries and the attempts at trade reform undertaken in the 1980s. Section II discusses the main types of trade restrictions and classifies levels of restrictiveness for a sample of forty countries. Section III considers problems of liberalization and their implications for their desirable sequencing of reform. Section IV surveys the trade reforms initiated by the forty countries in the sample and the implementation so far achieved by a subsample of twenty-four countries for which enough time has elapsed and sufficient data are available for reaching some conclusions.


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    Halevi, Nadav

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    Working Paper (Numbered Series)

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    The World Region,

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    Trade restrictions and reforms by developing countries in the 1980s

  • Keywords

    quantitative restriction;balance of payment;export bias;general agreement on tariffs and trade;protection level;exchange rate adjustment;adjustment cost;effect of trade;price elasticity of demand;real exchange rate depreciation;real effective exchange rate;exercise of monopoly power;alternative source of revenue;flexible exchange rate policy;terms of trade;nominal exchange rate;current account balance;foreign exchange control;capital account liberalization;trade reform programs;forms of protection;Macroeconomic Policy;effective protection rates;response to crisis;industry and trade;foreign exchange receipts;employment in agriculture;reduction of taxes;foreign exchange restriction;duty drawback systems;process of reform;government fiscal deficit;implementation of reform;classification of country;restrictions on export;entire trade regime;rate of inflation;income distribution effects;exchange rate management;Exchange rate policies;long term development;Inflation & unemployment;liberal trade policy;restrictions on imports;process of liberalization;complete free trade;effects on income;high inflation rate;import of goods;lack of commitment;allocation of resource;competitive imports;imported inputs;domestic production;protective tariff;import substitute;Exchange Rates;export tax;Trade Restrictiveness;tariff dispersion;export incentive;restrictive trade;



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Halevi, Nadav

Trade restrictions and reforms by developing countries in the 1980s (English). UNDP - World Bank Trade Expansiion Program occasional paper,no. 4 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.