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Political Reservation and Female Labor Force Participation in Rural India (English)

Despite income growth, fertility decline, and educational expansion, women's labor force participation in rural India dropped precipitously over the last decade. This paper uses nationwide, individual-level data allow to explore whether random reservation of village leadership for women affected their access to suitable job opportunities, demand for participation in the labor force, and income as well as intrahousehold bargaining in the short and medium term. Political empowerment through reservation affected women's but not men's participation in public works, but also women's participation in labor markets, income, and participation in key household decisions, with a lag.


  • Author

    Deininger,Klaus W., Jin,Songqing, Nagarajan,Hari Krishnan, Singh,Sudhir K.

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  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

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  • Region

    South Asia,

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  • Doc Name

    Political Reservation and Female Labor Force Participation in Rural India

  • Keywords

    female labor force participation; development research group; female labor market participation; labor force participation rate; skill need; agricultural self-employment; account advance rate; Indian Institute of Management; female labor supply; married woman; household and individual; access to job; provision of information; share of woman; labor market outcome; increase in labor; response to complaints; changing labor market; exposure to woman; access to infrastructure; expansion of education; decline in fertility; lack experience; impact on participation; central budget allocation; loss of income; physical capital accumulation; significant gender effect; primary school participation; discrimination against woman; quality of public; number of women; labor market opportunities; change in belief; source income; participation in education; source of income; primary health care; less formal education; opportunity for woman; business process outsourcing; collection of information; high school level; water harvesting structures; Gender-Based Violence; employment in agriculture; control over resources; village council; bargaining power; household decision; standard error; economic empowerment; fixed effect; female participation; indicator variable; individual income; marital status



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Deininger,Klaus W. Jin,Songqing Nagarajan,Hari Krishnan Singh,Sudhir K.

Political Reservation and Female Labor Force Participation in Rural India (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9350 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.