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Brazil - Gender review : issues and recommendations (English)

The report, which documents findings of a review on gender issues in Brazil, during 1999, and updated in 2001, is responsive to the recognition of gender as an important issue in increasing socioeconomic well-being, and reducing poverty. The review examines gender in terms of demographic trends, health indicators, the effects and causes of violence, education indicators, labor market trends, and social protection. It identifies gender issues across sectors, with a view to improving the Bank's efficiency, and effectiveness, in reducing gender inequities that affect both women, and men, though discussion on male gender issues is limited. Major findings indicate that mortality rates linked to external factors (i.e., traffic accidents, homicide, suicide), differ greatly by gender; pre-natal care for pregnant women continues to be inadequate; violence continues to be high; teaching methods tend to reinforce gender segregation; and, early childhood, and education programs remain poor. Recommendations include the need for changing societal gender roles, by acting on gender issues through community, and local level organizations, but targeting men as well as women, since male issues, such as violence and under performance in school, among others, may be attributed to men's narrowly defined gender roles, while effective women's programs, often require men's implicit, or explicit cooperation, and involvement.


  • Document Date


  • Document Type

    Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report

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  • Volume No


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  • Country


  • Region

    Latin America & Caribbean,

  • Disclosure Date


  • Doc Name

    Brazil - Gender review : issues and recommendations

  • Keywords

    Early Childhood Care and Education;Poverty Reduction & Economic Management;sexual abuse of child;Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome;national household survey;gender division of labor;access to family planning;quality of health care;public health care system;quality health care;higher incidence of poverty;labor force participation rate;services for poor children;economic opportunities for woman;cancer of the uterus;higher level of education;female labor market participation;access to legal service;Levels of Educational Attainment;availability of family planning;ngos and civil society;equal basis with man;primary level of education;lack of condom use;female labor force participation;years of schooling;violence against woman;gender wage gap;proportion of woman;reproductive health program;paid labor force;maternal mortality rate;health care service;civil society group;Sexually Transmitted Disease;reduction in poverty;effects of gender;access to contraceptive;victims of violence;high fertility rate;forms of contraception;violence against child;girls in school;terms of education;sexual health care;method of contraception;Human Immunodeficiency Virus;case of aid;maternal health care;risk of infection;womens labor force;exposure to violence;place of residence;Early childhood education;integrated health system;discrimination against woman;proportion of girl;violent conflict resolution;return to education;maternal health service;downward wage pressure;aids prevention program;educated labor force;source of infection;morning after pill;public health service;blue collar worker;risks of schistosomiasis;national income statistic;numbers of deaths;Social Safety Nets;liberalization of market;capacity building program;radio talk show;number of siblings;rate of growth;awareness raising campaign;public sector modernization;risk of poverty;episodes of violence;source of employment;subordination of woman;number of abortions;public health system;admission to hospital;living standard measurement;agriculture and industry;poverty reduction impact;child care facility;increase in consumption;sexual health service;brazilian census;labor market trend;community health;difference in income;std control;municipal health councils;weights and measure;form of discrimination;high infant mortality;reliable family planning;reducing child labor;boy in school;school age child;post natal care;health sector including;womens labor market;child in school;comprehensive health care;reducing gender inequality;women with child;private health insurance;opportunity for woman;reproductive health initiative;womens health service;economic sector work;AIDS prevention programs;provision of information;loss of appetite;impact of education;form of violence;quality of care;family planning education;lack of resource;primary income earner;education child;education of child;national fertility rate;concept of work;social security benefit;previous work experience;public sector budget;labor market outcome;school to work;accessibility of school;lack of interest;dimension work;participation of woman;effects of unemployment;public sector job;flexible working condition;traditional gender roles;lack of regulation;access to school;right to vote;middle school teacher;high opportunity cost;reducing maternal mortality;gender issue;minimum wage;domestic worker;black female;black male;white males;gender stereotype;human capital;socialization process;teenage pregnancy;Gender Gap;gender difference;rural area;life expectancy;womens participation;indigenous group;live birth;violence prevention;demographic characteristic;rural woman;gender socialization;Sexual Violence;Street Children;female workers;surgical sterilization;homosexual men;Traffic Accident;domestic chore;gender perspective;black child;peer group;pregnant woman;risky behavior;occupational segregation;indigenous people;external factor;young woman;health problem;educational level;Indigenous Peoples;household head;representative sample



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Brazil - Gender review : issues and recommendations (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.