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Social safety nets and gender : learning from impact evaluations and World Bank projects (English)

Poverty reduction is the overarching objective of the World Bank Group and is reflected in the institution’s commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). More recently, the twin goals of the institution, eradicating extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity, expressed a renewed commitment toward the Bank Group’s vision of a world free of poverty. This message is intimately related to another main goal of the institution: advancing gender equality. The shared prosperity goal calls for ensuring that men and women and boys and girls are included in the development process. This review focuses on a core set of poverty reduction interventions: Social Safety Net (SSN) programs. SSNs, a subset of social protection programs, are noncontributory transfer programs. Their main objective is to protect the poor against destitution and promoting equality of opportunity. The need to integrate gender considerations into the design of SSNs (and social protection interventions more generally) is an explicit objective of the World Bank Social Protection (SP) strategy. This report analyzes whether SSN interventions produce results and help to improve gender equality for men and women and boys and girls, either as a deliberate outcome or as an unplanned consequence. The report discusses whether SSN interventions aim to ‘empower women’ and achieve greater gender equality, or impact other gender outcomes as one of their main goals. The report also looks at what type of actions and indicators these interventions adopt and what results they obtain. The report reviews evidence of results on SSN-specific outcomes.


  • Author

    Bardasi,Elena, Garcia,Gisela Mariela

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  • Document Type

    IEG Evaluation

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  • Region

    The World Region,

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  • Doc Name

    Social safety nets and gender : learning from impact evaluations and World Bank projects

  • Keywords

    small and medium enterprise;gender gap in education;access to prenatal care;maternal and child health;conditional cash transfer program;Gender Equality;Development Policy Loan;equality of opportunity;investment in children;social protection program;reducing gender inequality;allocation of resource;access to fund;gross domestic product;advancing gender equality;quality employment;discrimination in employment;world food programme;primary school enrollment;information on gender;education and health;quality of employment;opportunity for woman;propensity score matching;share of resource;international development community;integration of gender;individual in society;social protection interventions;household and individual;attendance of child;reproductive health care;participation in employment;social assistance program;control of resource;skilled birth attendance;existing gender gap;benefits for woman;types of beneficiaries;social insurance program;dimension of gender;traditional gender roles;disparities between men;project completion documents;provision of information;explicit poverty;issue of gender;women's empowerment;bargaining power;positive impact;female participation;economic empowerment;Labor Market;school attendance;anthropometric measure;domestic work;gender indicator;labor supply;portfolio review;gender difference;children's health;child labor;household decision;household resource;young girl;opportunity cost;increased spending;gender mainstreaming;portfolio analysis;household level;gender disparity;individual study;outcome indicator;individual poverty;gender consideration;female empowerment;gender inequalities;incorporate gender;empirical evidence;indicator value;working condition;agricultural tool;Public Employment;gender impact;health facility;female head;investment incentive;alternative employment;household expenditure;gender dimension;young woman;longer period;voting behavior;migration pattern;protection strategy;productive asset;extreme poverty;empirical work;Agricultural Investment;unintended consequence;household poverty;nutritional status;gender dynamic;productive activity;systems approach;alternative hypothesis;logical framework;Early childhood;catalytic effect;operational work;gender lens;Maternal Health;differentiated impact;literature review;Antenatal Care;household head;empirical literature;risk pregnancies;program delivery;gender aspect;secondary sources;women's health;gender program;total inequality;gender issue;legal framework;sociocultural norms;Maternal Mortality;gender discrimination;livelihood program;theoretical model;income support;working life;Pension Income;emotional violence;voucher program;Sexual Violence;living arrangement;educated woman;observed increase;vulnerable woman;quantitative evaluation;subsidiary right;non-governmental organization;education outcome;noncommercial purposes;poverty status;transfer recipient;production decision;permanent employment;relative value;children's education;household income;behavioral response;assessing progress;productive resource;productive investment;asset transfer;financial asset;evaluation question;female employment;economic independence;gender group;observed change;Project Monitoring;gender segregation;attendance rate;political interest;future earnings;holistic approach;women beneficiary;indirect approach;behavioral change;expenditure decision;formal pension;high vulnerability;intervention impact;old-age pension;quantitative method;longer life;responsible adults;causal chain;allocation process;household consumption;gender intervention;empowering women;household spending;family welfare;gender strategy;gender evaluation;



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Bardasi,Elena Garcia,Gisela Mariela

Social safety nets and gender : learning from impact evaluations and World Bank projects (English). Sector or thematic evaluation Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.