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Does longer compulsory education equalize schooling by gender and rural and urban residence (English)

This study examines the effects of the extension of compulsory schooling from 5 to 8 years in Turkey in 1997 - which involved substantial investment in school infrastructure - on schooling outcomes and, in particular, on the equality of these outcomes between men and women, and urban and rural residents using the Turkish demographic and health surveys. This policy is peculiar because it also changes the sheepskin effects (signaling effects) of schooling, through its redefinition of the schooling tiers. The policy is also interesting due to its large spillover effects on post-compulsory schooling as well as its remarkable overall effect; for instance, the authors find that the completed years of schooling by age 17 increases by 1.5 years for rural women. The policy equalizes the educational attainment of urban and rural children substantially. The urban-rural gap in the completed years of schooling at age 17 falls by 0.5 years for men and by 0.7 to 0.8 years for women. However, there is no evidence of a narrowing gender gap with the policy. On the contrary, the gender gap in urban areas in post-compulsory schooling widens


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    Kirdar,Murat G., Dayioglu,Meltem, Koc,Ismet

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    Journal Article

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    The World Region,

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    Does longer compulsory education equalize schooling by gender and rural and urban residence?

  • Keywords

    years of schooling; compulsory schooling; rural area; Demographic and Health Survey; rural to urban migration; purchase of school supply; school year; compulsory schooling law; secondary school diploma; supply of worker; investment in school; high school; place of residence; grade completion rate; distance to school; high school level; high school student; number of teachers; estimation of equation; upper secondary schooling; high school diploma; net enrollment rate; parameters in equation; secondary school level; human capital model; primary school graduate; participation of woman; religious secondary school; local administrative body; secondary school student; future earnings capacity; human capital theory; return to education; parent and children; cost of child; human capital accumulation; number of classrooms; basic education level; accessibility of school; compulsory school attendance; schooling of girl; school construction program; Gender Gap; urban residence; rural resident; price elasticity; boarding school; school decision; conceptual framework; educational outcome; rural residence; birth cohort; rural woman; school outcome; urban resident; descriptive statistic; general equilibrium; school quality; religious education; monetary penalties; Labor Market; schooling attainment; drop-out rate; Education Policy; discount rate; schooling quality; opportunity cost; home production; schooling level; signaling effect; wage employment; cumulative effect; empirical analysis; labor-force participation; empirical support; student population; start school; school reform; compulsory education; small school; population study; attending school; religious school; DEC Policy Review; household data; parental preference; market incentive; children's schooling; school participation; longer distance; agricultural work; information problem; positive externality; individual decision; differential impact; information gap; education decision; agency problem; free schooling; rural girl; teacher quality; local schooling; imperfect information; worker productivity; discount value; simple model; physical capacity; rising demand; poor household; legal machinery; school time; school enrollment; secular education; transportation cost; rising trend; monetary cost; standard model; school investment; productivity effect; lifetime earnings; wage inequality; technical school; linear regression; school disparity; research assistance; take time; higher grade; Child Health; small sample; functional form; minimum level; causal effect; population size; sample mean; geographical region; urban woman; rural man; vertical line; dramatic change; social outcome; urban-rural disparity; logistic regression; constant term; labor supply; political actor; school availability; social program; noncompliance rate; older individual; teenage fertility; school policy; improved information; educational program; credit constraint; political development; skill group; class size; unequal opportunity



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Kirdar,Murat G. Dayioglu,Meltem Koc,Ismet

Does longer compulsory education equalize schooling by gender and rural and urban residence (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.