Skip to Main Navigation

Conducting classroom observations : analyzing classrooms dynamics and instructional time - using the Stallings 'classroom snapshot' observation system : user guide (English)

The ‘Stallings classroom snapshot’ instrument, technically called the ‘Stanford Research Institute classroom observation system’ was developed by Professor Jane Stallings for research on the efficiency and quality of basic education teachers in the United States in the 1970s. The Stallings instrument generates robust quantitative data on the interaction of teachers and students in the classroom, with a high degree of inter-rater reliability (0.8 or higher) among observers with relatively limited training, which makes it suitable for large scale samples in developing country settings. Key features of the Stallings instrument make it well-suited to large scale use in developing country contexts. However, several factors need to borne in mind when interpreting its results. First, there is clear potential for Hawthorne effects, as teachers are aware of the observer (and sometimes pair of observers) physically present in the classroom, unlike the latest observation methods being used in the United States, which place a video camera in the classroom for extended periods so as to minimize these effects. One operating assumption, therefore, is that Stallings observations capture teachers’ performing at their very best, or production possibility frontier, which is in fact useful to measure. A second issue is the potential noisiness of the variables being measured; if the same teacher were observed on different days or with different student sections on the same day or with a different cohort of students the following year, how consistent would the measured performance be? Initial studies in the US called for visits to each classroom on two different days. Third issue is the non-random assignment of teachers to classes in most of the school systems observed. Even when students are not explicitly ability-tracked, classroom assignment rules may de facto result in some teachers facing much more gifted or docile students than others. Finally, what makes the Stallings instrument versatile and robust across different grades, subjects, languages and countries is that it does not try to measure the content of what is being taught, either the depth or sophistication of the curriculum content itself or the teacher’s mastery of that content.

Details

  • Document Date

    2015/01/01

  • Document Type

    Working Paper

  • Report Number

    97904

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    World,

  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date

    2015/07/07

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Conducting classroom observations : analyzing classrooms dynamics and instructional time - using the Stallings 'classroom snapshot' observation system : user guide

  • Keywords

    information and communication technology;types of school;waiting for instruction;basic education teacher;quality of teacher;efficiency and quality;cohort of student;Production Possibility Frontier;classroom management;student learning;academic content;learning aid;instructional activity;class period;school system;classroom observation;learning activity;comic book;student enter;classroom use;class work;instructional time;Teacher Effectiveness;class size;reading activity;science experiments;primary purpose;classroom dynamic;curriculum content;quantitative measure;classroom work;instructional aid;solving problem;visual aid;pedagogical practice;representative sample;school day;academic work;science class;sampling frame;Schedule of Classes;effective teaching;student group;class time;quantitative data;classroom activity;corporal punishment;class textbook;Class Schedule;exercise book;cooperative work;rote learning;science equipment;human body;school administrator;water filter;measured performance;classroom practice;science content;social interaction;schooling process;writing material;Teachers;

Downloads

COMPLETE REPORT

Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.

Citation

Conducting classroom observations : analyzing classrooms dynamics and instructional time - using the Stallings 'classroom snapshot' observation system : user guide (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790221467997639302/Conducting-classroom-observations-analyzing-classrooms-dynamics-and-instructional-time-using-the-Stallings-classroom-snapshot-observation-system-user-guide