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A Review of Integrated Urban Planning Tools for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation : Linking Land Use, Infrastructure Transition, Technology, and Behavioral Change - Technical Paper (English)

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) over the next 30 years will critically depend upon urban land use and infrastructure development actions taken across multiple sectors (buildings, energy, transportation, water-sanitation, and waste) in global cities. Integrated urban planning addresses a multiplicity of urban sustainability objectives (e.g., economy, environment, inclusivity, and resilience) (GPSC, World Bank 2018), including cross-sectoral and cross-scale linkages (Ramaswami et al. 2016) and connection of physical planning with social, cultural, behavior, and policy dimensions. The objective of this report is to review the state of knowledge (science) and the state of practice (models actually used by cities for policy) for modeling the GHG mitigation benefits achievable through integrated urban planning across the four levers, with attention to the foundational Lever 1, CUD. Although the field of urban sustainability is relatively young, and the availability of robust data is uneven across world cities, our review found that significant scientific advances have occurred in modeling the four levers representing integrated urban planning in the context of GHG mitigation. Within each of the four levers, more than 30+ strategies were identified in the literature. For all the strategies, the GHG mitigation potential can be modeled using the same structure of algorithms, which is computed by multiplying two key parameters: the first parameter is the strategy effect per unit of an intervention, i.e., the reduction in demand or resource use per unit of intervention. The second parameter is the penetration rate or adoption rate of each intervention in the strategy scenario. Examples include the percentage of households experiencing CUD improvements or purchasing energy-efficient cars compared to the baseline. This rate has a high impact on the citywide potential for GHG mitigation from implementing a strategy and is shaped by human behavior and policy.


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    A Review of Integrated Urban Planning Tools for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation : Linking Land Use, Infrastructure Transition, Technology, and Behavioral Change - Technical Paper

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    scientific and technical advisory panel; community-scale greenhouse gas emission inventories; transit-oriented development; operation and maintenance cost; energy efficient light bulbs; demand for infrastructure services; level of car ownership; long-run elasticity; energy use in building; Urban Planning; urban land use; land use pattern; greenhouse gas mitigation; reduction in travel; state of knowledge; urban development; mitigation potential; Clean Energy; travel demand elasticity; land use strategy; limited coverage; land use model; geographic information system; carbon dioxide equivalent; land use development; climate action plan; energy use reduction; types of city; Water and Energy; billion people; infrastructure and transportation; issues of population; mode of travel; renewable energy grid; price of gasoline; personal vehicle ownership; reductions in demand; modes of transit; central business district; energy efficiency indicator; land use mix; demand for travel; electric power plant; floor area ratio; impact of intervention; investment in transit; water use reduction; rapid urban expansion; energy efficiency improvement; behavior change strategy; Solid Waste Management; sustainable urban infrastructure; energy efficiency strategy; urban development strategy; traffic management plan; bus rapid transit; intelligent transport system; green building design; global city; ghg emissions; participation rate; Resource Efficiency; model result; Population Density; penetration rate; GHG Reduction; big data; physical infrastructure; demand reduction; dwelling units; infrastructure technology; field data; price signal; human behavior; district energy; carbon mitigation; construction material; infrastructure strategy; GHG Accounting; individual sectors; open source; built environment; mitigation strategy; behavioral change; urban context; accounting approach; empirical study; energy planning; new model; infrastructure provision; sustainable city; Healthy cities; mitigation actions; infrastructure sector; waste heat; urban sustainability; energy reduction; infrastructure demand; urban sprawl; base case; infrastructure intervention; informal settlement; infrastructure cost; technology innovation; direct fuel; global energy; electric vehicle; vehicle mile; scarce water; particular model; public domain; local policy; land resources; energy requirement; motorized transportation; subsidiary right; vehicle maintenance; passive design; mass mobility; accessible travel; efficient building; land expansion; spatial planning; copyright holder; Bike Path; climate resilience; circular economy; assessment criterion; data requirement; urban resource; primary focus; sustainable financing; resource sustainability; infrastructure needs; behavior development; technology strategy; mass transit; accounting method; baseline data; transportation fuel; individual city; fuel tax; energy conservation; technology leapfrogging; spatial scale; small cities; population size; square foot; street network; infrastructure requirement; household wealth; fiscal capacities; local agency; supply chain; sector model; geographic region; bar charts; service coverage; wastewater treatment; land conservation; environmental benefit; personal travel; employment benefit; payback period; economic efficiency; carbon reduction; emission scenario; ghg inventory; emission inventory; housing density; convenient access; transit station; floor space; transit access; income diversity; tree cover; bicycle infrastructure; pedestrian infrastructure; mobility option; nonmotorized travel; electricity grid; carbon intensity; car share; GHG Intensity; noncommercial purposes; driving behavior; scientific community; street design; street intersection; human settlement; urban study; good sustainability; new city; regional variation; transit ridership; job center; trip chain; macro level; transport model; low rate; empirical research; several decades; national academy; road density; local capacit



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A Review of Integrated Urban Planning Tools for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation : Linking Land Use, Infrastructure Transition, Technology, and Behavioral Change - Technical Paper (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.