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China - From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality (English)

China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty, in both the poverty rate and the number of poor, occurred during the 6th, 8th, and 10th plans. During the 7th plan period the number of poor actually rose, while in the 9th plan period, the poverty rate declined only marginally. But the pace of poverty reduction resumed between 2001 and 2004 and there are indications that during the first couple of years of the 11th plan poverty has continued to decline rapidly. The most recent official estimate of rural poverty in China for 2007 puts the number of poor at 14.79 million, or less than 2 percent of the rural population. While there is no official urban poverty line, estimates by others have found poverty levels in urban areas to be negligible using an urban poverty line that is comparable to the official poverty line for rural areas. These estimates thus suggest that only about 1 percent of China's population is currently in extreme poverty. Notwithstanding this tremendous success, the central thesis of this report is that the task of poverty reduction in many ways continues and in some respects has become more demanding.

Details

  • Document Date

    2009/03/05

  • Document Type

    Poverty Assessment

  • Report Number

    47349

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    China,

  • Region

    East Asia and Pacific,

  • Disclosure Date

    2009/04/06

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    China - From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality

  • Keywords

    labor force participation rate;monitoring and evaluation capacity;township and village enterprise;relative risk of poverty;household per capita income;headcount index of poverty;millennium development goal;high school enrollment rate;junior high school education;rise in income inequality;rural area;official poverty line;social assistance program;concentration of poverty;poverty reduction effort;urban labor market;human capital endowment;vulnerability to poverty;poverty reduction program;social insurance program;iron rice bowl;incidence of poverty;exposure to risk;international poverty standard;social protection system;local fiscal resource;disparity in income;social insurance coverage;reduction in tax;local government revenue;access to health;poverty alleviation program;destination of migrant;conception poverty;public service delivery;decline in poverty;urban poverty line;secondary school education;urban labor force;affordable basic education;productivity of land;scale of migration;equity of opportunity;concentration of land;incidence of consumption;relative poverty rate;rising wage inequality;analysis of variance;building human capacity;determinants of poverty;subjective poverty line;return to education;reduction in poverty;bottom income quintile;infant survival rate;education and health;increase in inequality;income from agriculture;form of poverty;household survey data;economic growth rate;number of beneficiaries;information on migration;central government funding;elasticity of poverty;Poverty & Inequality;cost of living;state industrial sector;security of tenure;pension insurance system;social protection program;food poverty line;household saving rate;rural labor force;provision of health;junior secondary level;human development indicator;distribution of expenditure;square poverty gap;risk management strategy;Rural Poor;poor village;local resident;international standard;rural population;rural migrant;migrant worker;education expenditure;consumption poverty;minority areas;urban worker;extreme poverty;poor household;income poverty;household level;Transient Poverty;income growth;urban resident;education outcome;urban unemployment;economic reform;rural worker;rural resident;headcount rate;rural price;inequality trap;small cities;qualitative study;means testing;migrant child;basic healthcare;education level;natural disaster;disaster relief;equitable allocation;budget share;farm yield;potential migrant;female migration;rural income;rising tide;assessment study;work capacity;migration probability;subsidized credit;official estimates;labor transfer;income shock;informal employment;urban wage;provincial distribution;targeting performance;urban employment;agricultural tax;social policies;urban system;social landscape;urban economy;strategic guidance;work year;basic food;senior secondary;working place;coverage rate;index price;income economy;increasing inequality;migration activity;food need;precautionary saving;employment status;domestic consumption;health outcome;raising income;health facility;high share;headcount ratio;short period;Gender Gap;headcount poverty;market-oriented economy;official statistic;institutional transformation;egalitarian distribution;social policy;land take;migrant household;land expropriation;poverty status;labor income;unemployment rate;productivity gap;cross-country perspective;land right;disincentive effect;migrant population;hourly earnings;eligibility threshold;Employment in Urban Areas;Medical Insurance;educational cost;unemployment insurance;compulsory education;contract law;incidence curve;program impact;multiple sources;unemployed worker;Ethnic Minorities;regional distribution;coastal region;Public Services;global trade;secondary sources;farm income;high unemployment;limited coverage;reduced poverty;public transfer;important component;rural health;urban program;migration flow;work status;affordable education;pension program;horizontal equity;land allocation;labor productivity;young adult

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Citation

China - From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/816851468219918783/China-From-poor-areas-to-poor-people-Chinas-evolving-poverty-reduction-agenda-an-assessment-of-poverty-and-inequality