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Philippines - Urbanization review : fostering competitive, sustainable and inclusive cities (Vol. 2) : executive summary (English)

Urbanization is a driving force for growth and poverty reduction. Globally, over 80 percent of economic activity is concentrated in cities, and cities are essential for lifting millions of people out of poverty through the opportunities that density and agglomeration can bring with jobs, services, and innovation. However, if not carefully managed and planned for, the benefits of urbanization are not realized and can result in congestion, slums, pollution, inequality and crime. City competitiveness is an important part of successful urbanization. A competitive city facilitates its firms and industries to create jobs, raise productivity, and increase the incomes of citizens over time. At the same time, it is not possible to achieve these objectives without strong institutions, social inclusion, resilience, and environmental sustainability. All of these elements are important to harnessing the benefits of urbanization and must be enabled by both national and local governments. Chapter one of the report provides an introduction to urbanization in the Philippines. Chapter two covers analysis of urbanization and growth in the Philippines, Chapter three focuses on city competitiveness for economic development and job creation, chapter four provides an analysis of urban poverty with a particularly focus on informal settler families (ISFs) in Metro Manila, chapter five outlines the key binding constraints related to institutions for urban development and metropolitan governance; and chapter six covers constraints related to land administration and management in urban areas. Each chapter includes a framework for analysis, identification and assessment of key issues, and provides recommendations for the Government of the Philippines to consider. Important topics related to environmental sustainability and resilience are included as a cross cutting issue as they relate to urban planning and land management, but not covered in depth as they have been addressed in other World Bank reports. The full study is summarized below. Background technical papers for each section have also been prepared and cover much more analysis and detail. These are available as a companion to this policy report.


  • Author

    Baker,Judy L., Watanabe,Makiko, Soriano,Bernice Anne Varona, Limkin,Joseph Louie C., Shi,Tuo, Hooton,Christopher Alex, Piatkowski,Marcin Miroslaw, Sivaev,Dmitry, Lasida Adji,Farida, Toborowicz,Jerzy Jakub, Tang,Lawrence, Nebrija,Julia Catherine, Eleazar,Floradema, Martinez,Marilyn Tolosa, Cuttaree,Vickram

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  • Document Type

    Working Paper

  • Report Number


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  • Region

    East Asia and Pacific,

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  • Disclosure Status


  • Doc Name

    executive summary

  • Keywords

    Commission on Higher Education;Land Administration and Management;Urban Development and Housing;legal protection for bank;urbanization;Cost of Doing Business;solid waste management facility;quality of service delivery;small and medium enterprise;monitoring and evaluation system;national spatial data infrastructure;limited access to finance;land use planning;land information system;crime and violence;business process outsourcing;national government agency;policy or regulation;real property tax;infrastructure and services;greenhouse gas emission;long term lease;risk of poverty;investment in property;public infrastructure investment;urban development planning;single business tax;accounting and reporting;business tax base;local revenue administration;capacity building support;sustainable land management;quality basic service;rapid population growth;conditional cash transfer;access to land;direct service provision;flood control facility;lack of education;economic policy reform;Poverty & Inequality;international good practice;fixed registration fee;land for development;price and quality;skilled labor force;high school education;business information system;intergovernmental fiscal system;collaboration between university;urban middle class;security of tenure;jobs and growth;urbanization and growth;central urban area;movement of people;basic urban service;intellectual property rights;rate of crime;property tax collection;source of income;source income;flood prone area;mass transit system;efficient land use;sustainable urban planning;secondary education completion;Rate of migration;disaster risk management;land use management;fiscal decentralization reform;urban poor communities;availability of information;Disaster Risk Reduction;public works program;national urban policy;loss of livelihood;engine of growth;lack of transparency;sustainable urban services;management of city;Job Creation;secondary city;urban density;informal settlement;Urban Infrastructure;spatial development;land market;metropolitan governance;business support;urban population;metropolitan area;city competitiveness;business environment;business permit;binding constraint;urban growth;natural hazard;urban economy;slum upgrading;transport network;agglomeration economy;Business Registration;transport cost;urban strategy;Labor Market;spatial economic;Land tenure;data gaps;consultative manner;social inclusion;competitive cities;comparative advantage;governance issue;institutional responsibilities;transportation infrastructure;institutional environment;productive factor;local roadway;efficient system;competitive city;job opportunities;job opportunity;pay taxes;national economy;wage employment;property taxation;global market;living condition;government land;increase productivity;university system;human capital;external shock;international market;local autonomy;city government;formal mechanisms;business community;firm productivity;bilateral trade;collateral registration;medium-size enterprise;bankruptcy resolution;shipping cost;metropolitan region;housing finance;investor confidence;municipal mayor;housing initiative;social capital;agglomeration effect;consumption pattern;water pollution;increased demand;recurring flood;national poverty;vertical coordination;social exclusion;transportation crisis;legal framework;city hall;credit operation;domestic demand;primary source;limited capacity;regional economy;urban life;construction permit;telecommunication infrastructure;banking sector;large bank;market demand;vocational skill;Fire Safety;small-scale water;community level;education material;secure tenure;local development;basic infrastructure;course design;city resilience;infrastructure funding;fiscal capacities;Land Ownership;accurate information;property valuation;urban price;policy priority;Public Transport;Enterprise Development;social cohesion;rapid urbanization;mutual trust;accountability system;government coordination;man-made disasters;housing sector;spatial expansion



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Baker,Judy L. Watanabe,Makiko Soriano,Bernice Anne Varona Limkin,Joseph Louie C. Shi,Tuo Hooton,Christopher Alex Piatkowski,Marcin Miroslaw Sivaev,Dmitry Lasida Adji,Farida Toborowicz,Jerzy Jakub Tang,Lawrence Nebrija,Julia Catherine Eleazar,Floradema Martinez,Marilyn Tolosa Cuttaree,Vickram

Philippines - Urbanization review : fostering competitive, sustainable and inclusive cities (Vol. 2) : executive summary (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.