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The Cost of Coastal Zone Degradation in West Africa : Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Togo (English)

West Africa’s coastal areas host about one third of the region’s population and generate 56 percent of its GDP. They are home for valuable wetlands, fisheries, oil and gas reserves, and high tourism potential. However, these areas are affected by severe pressures: rapid urbanization along the coast has increased the demands on land, water, and other natural resources; man-made infrastructure and sand extraction have contributed to significant coastal retreat; moreover, climate change and disaster risks are exacerbating these threats. As a result, coastal areas are undergoing alarming environmental degradation leading to deaths (due to floods, air and water pollution), losses of assets (houses, infrastructure) and damages to critical ecosystems (mangroves, marine habitat). This study estimates in monetary terms the Cost of Environmental Degradation (COED) in the coastal areas of Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Togo. Specifically,it values the impacts of degradation that occur during one year, as a result of three major factors: flooding, erosion, and pollution (from water, air and waste). The final results are expressed in 2017 prices. They are reflected in absolute (USD) and in relative terms, as percentage of the countries’ GDP. Overall, the COED of the four countries is estimated at aboutUSD 3.8 billion, or 5.3 percent of the countries’ GDP in 2017. Flooding and erosion are the main forms of degradation, accounting for more than 60 percent of the total cost. Moreover, coastal degradation causes over 13,000 deaths a year, primarily due to air and water pollution, and to floods.

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  • Author

    Croitoru,Lelia, Miranda Montero,Juan Jose, Sarraf,Maria

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  • Document Type

    Working Paper

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  • Country

    Western Africa,


  • Region

    Africa, The World Region,

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  • Doc Name

    The Cost of Coastal Zone Degradation in West Africa : Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Togo

  • Keywords

    flood; coastal area; climate change and disaster risk; water-borne disease; intergovernmental panel on climate change; Environment and Natural Resources; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; impact of climate change; oil and gas reserve; Natural Resource Management; disability adjusted life years; construction and demolition waste; total number of death; water quality and quantity; annual value of land; air quality monitoring program; contingent valuation method; fecal sludge management; ambient air pollution; sea level rise; million people; photo credit; ischemic heart disease; rural area; cost of water; impact of flood; risk of death; Solid Waste Management; cost of waste; agriculture and industry; loss of asset; quantity of wastewater; fine particulate matter; solid waste collection; primarily due; municipal waste collection; resilience of communities; cost of wastewater; value of asset; environmental degradation; monetary term; indoor air pollution; purchasing power parity; flood area; large urban areas; disposal of waste; impact of road; lost economic opportunity; damage to houses; impact on health; coastal water pollution; road and bridges; impacts of pollution; value of good; environmental management practices; stated preference methods; market for good; access to water; poor water quality; damage to property; drinking water services; use by household; management of excreta; lost land; major environmental problem; in the street; rural coastal areas; estimation of mortality; land for landfill; cost of illness; urban waste management; spread of disease; wastewater treatment infrastructure; improved public; consumption per capita; environment and development; marine pollution bulletin; cases of tuberculosis; urban land value; land cover classification; high population growth; offshore petroleum exploration; municipal waste stream; ambient particulate matter; urban air pollution; work loss days; restricted activity day; degradation of water; number of victims; source of pollution; climate change impact; level of erosion; rising sea levels; sanitation and hygiene; municipal waste management; return period



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Croitoru,Lelia Miranda Montero,Juan Jose Sarraf,Maria

The Cost of Coastal Zone Degradation in West Africa : Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Togo (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.