Skip to Main Navigation

Human resource development and economic growth : Ghana in the next two decades (English)

Human resources are a country's wealth, and it is people that make economies grow. A longstanding commitment to education and health has been key to economic growth and development in countries worldwide, and it is in this field that Ghana will need to make the biggest strides to catch up if it is to break into the league of fast-growing economies. While human capital does not guarantee fast growth, even with the best of policies Ghana cannot achieve the rapid growth seen elsewhere if it does not invest more in human capital. This paper begins with a brief summary of lessons from selected countries worldwide regarding the contribution of human resources to economic growth. It then reviews studies pertaining to Ghana's own experience: what have been the effects of improvements in educational levels and health status on productivity and development. It assesses the past performance of Ghana with respect to building its human resources, highlighting the key issues of provision of and access to education, health and nutrition services. It discusses targets for the future, and the resources and policies required for achieving these goals. The paper concludes with a reminder that future human resource development in Ghana depends not only on policies adopted by the education and health ministries, but also on broader policies affecting labor markets, technological change, industrial structure, and population growth.


  • Author

    King, Elizabeth M. Glewwe, Paul Alberts, Wim Population and Human Resources Department

  • Document Date


  • Document Type

    Working Paper (Numbered Series)

  • Report Number


  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country


  • Region


  • Disclosure Date


  • Doc Name

    Human resource development and economic growth : Ghana in the next two decades

  • Keywords

    Primary and Secondary Education;rates of return to education;education and economic growth;human capital;primary health care system;human capital for growth;social and economic development;cross-country regression analysis;social rate of return;health status of people;infant and child mortality;quality of life indicator;access to health facility;leading cause of death;improvements in life expectancy;system of university education;secondary education enrollment;high rate of literacy;enrollment rate of girl;gender gap in education;access to safe water;nutritional status of child;investment in human resources;human resource development;height for age;primary school enrollment;universal primary education;junior secondary school;human capital model;performance in education;rural area;investments in education;health and nutrition;gross enrollment rate;infant mortality rate;education and health;commitment to education;absence from work;literacy and numeracy;Higher Education;Basic Education;female schooling;impact of health;schooling of girl;contribution of investment;adult female illiteracy;modern economic growth;safe water supply;crude death rate;types of education;improvements in health;per capita health;kind of investment;safe drinking water;benefit to society;impact on child;child nutritional status;private sector provision;formal school system;universal primary enrollment;expenditure per student;level of support;quality of instruction;child death rate;high literacy rate;primary school attendance;foreign technical assistance;burden of disease;application of pesticide;highly skilled labor;supply of teacher;secondary school enrollment;primary enrollment ratio;total education expenditures;impact on productivity;access to sanitation;proportion of male;average life expectancy;newly industrializing country;Access to Education;safe waste disposal;remote rural area;private sector worker;curative health care;impact of education;foreign exchange resource;years of schooling;household survey data;misappropriation of fund;labor force entrant;recurrent education expenditure;education level;worker productivity;literacy level;female child;recurrent budgets;poor health;ill health;Infectious Disease;calorie availability;Vocational Training;good health;Population Growth;household income;live birth;technological change;qualified teacher;primary level;private rate;Health Service;family size;retention rates;female education;cumulative fertility;government effort;physical infrastructure;high enrollment;policy regard;public resource;income loss;middle school;school quality;acutely malnourished;high wage;Brain Drain;age cohort;economic crisis;agricultural self-employment;account advance rate;Labor Market;farm profits;total output;real output;empirical work;historical evidence;net result;school condition;cognitive skill;export boom;export performance;compulsory education;vocational institution;skilled workforce;health expenditure;adult work;rural population;daily intake;health program;child malnutrition;positive impact;real expenditure;budgetary fund;health inputs;Basic Drugs;health budget;educated people;nutritional practices;secondary level;future demand;public system;expanding enrollment;dynamic growth;agricultural household;chronic undernutrition;moderate malnutrition;increased access;work force;investment budget;foreign borrowing;energy requirement;employer-employee relationship;market entrant;standard deviation;wage data;pure water;wage work;abstract thinking;formal schooling;industrial structure;industrial environment;manpower planning;mass education;econometric technique;household expenditure;industrial revolution;ongoing work;material wealth;human race;sole responsibility;permanent income;negative effect;educational system;trained teacher;chronic malnutrition;untrained teacher;instructional material;universal literacy;medical facility;explanatory variable;urban residence;school maintenance;rigorous analysis;adult health;wage worker;sewage system



Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.


King, Elizabeth M. Glewwe, Paul Alberts, Wim Population and Human Resources Department

Human resource development and economic growth : Ghana in the next two decades (English). Population and Human Resources Department. Education and Employment Division background paper series ; no. PHREE 92/57 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.