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Monitoring the Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Djiboutian and Refugee Households in Djibouti : Results from the Third Wave of Survey (French)

The third round of data collection on monitoring of socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic in Djibouti followed urban national households based on two previous waves of data collection as well as a replacement sub-sample. This round also includes a refugee sub-sample, covering urban refugees and those based in refugee villages. Economic recovery in Djibouti continues to follow a positive trend. Breadwinners from Djiboutian households continue to come back to work. Only 4 percent of those working before the pandemic were not working at the time of the survey. Even when counting those who were not working before the pandemic, 83 percent of all national households' breadwinners are now working – continuing strong trends from waves 1 and 2. Nationals with waged work grew from 22 to 76 percent in that time, and only 9 percent of those currently working report working less than usual. Djiboutian workers are also working more – but for less pay. Only one in five Djiboutian breadwinners are working less than they were before the pandemic or not at all. However, half of those who worked less than usual received no pay in wave 3 – 53 percent up from 35 percent in wave 2, and fewer received partial payment compared to the previous waves. Poor households were more likely to have received no pay for work performed. Refugees based in refugee villages face worse employment conditions than those living in urban areas or urban nationals. They were less likely to be employed prior to COVID-19, more likely to lose their job during pandemic, and do not exhibit similar signs of recovery. Around 68 percent of urban refugee breadwinners are currently working and 7 percent who worked before the pandemic are currently not working. In comparison, less than half (49 percent) of refugee breadwinners based in refugee villages are currently working, and 16 percent are no longer working relative to pre-COVID-19. A quarter of urban refugees and around 35 percent of refugees in refugee villages worked neither now nor before the pandemic, and nearly a third (29 percent) of the latter who are working report working less than usual. In addition, refugee breadwinners’ concentration in the informal sector (87 percent) highlights the precarity of their livelihood.


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    Malaeb,Bilal, Duplantier,Anne Marie, Gansey,Romeo Jacky, Konate,Sekou Tidani, Abdoulkader,Omar, Tanner,Jeffery, Mugera,Harriet Kasidi

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    Middle East and North Africa,

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    Monitoring the Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Djiboutian and Refugee Households in Djibouti : Results from the Third Wave of Survey

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    refugee household; national household; female labor force participation; source income; source of income; family and friends; urban national; children from households; access to health-care; access to goods; distribution of household; income generating activity; households with child; income-generating activity; state owned enterprise; informal sector; public health measures; evolution over time; place of residence; signs of recovery; increase in prices; accessing health services; types of expenses; public sector job; reduction in consumption; wage work; basic good; urban village; partial payment; household head; food insecurity; response rate; food stamp; small sample; work status; food assistance; daily rate; social affairs; wheat flour; female national; Cash Transfer; income source; refugee population; employment rate; labor income; coping mechanism; Coping Mechanisms; poor household; urban household; employment condition; first wave; urban counterpart; household use; sampling strategy; asylum seeker; sole proprietorship; urban one; Labor Market; economic recovery; frequency indicator; refugee family; in family; food voucher; refugee settlement; refugee child; emergency service; dietary diversity; poverty status; refugee work; female counterparts; host population; refugee status; registry data; module design; forced displacement; survey design; high probability; low share; education health; sampling frame; Child care; household income; phone number; cooking oil; price spike; Informal Work; negative effect; healthcare services; restrictive measures; chronic disease; national service; urban population; population census; dominant strategy; national population; urban dweller; wealth quintile; sampling design; Real estate



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Malaeb,Bilal Duplantier,Anne Marie Gansey,Romeo Jacky Konate,Sekou Tidani Abdoulkader,Omar Tanner,Jeffery Mugera,Harriet Kasidi

Monitoring the Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Djiboutian and Refugee Households in Djibouti : Results from the Third Wave of Survey (French). Monitoring COVID-19 Impacts on Djiboutian Households Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.