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Using Taxation to Address Noncommunicable Diseases : Lessons from Tonga (English)

Tonga has experienced a high burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the past two decades. Data indicate the continuing rise of four major NCDs -cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer,and respiratory diseases – as the leading causes of premature death and disability. According to latest data, NCDs accounted for four out of five leading causes of mortality in Tonga, and 99.9 percent of Tongan adults aged 25–64 are at moderate to high risk of developing an NCD. The increase in behavioral-related risk factors such as smoking, poor diet (e.g. high in sugar, salt, trans-fat and saturated fat, and low in fruit, vegetables, legumes, fish etc.), harmful alcohol intake, and physical inactivity are acknowledged as the major contributing factors to the rise in NCDs in Tonga. According to its 2012 STEPS Survey, Tonga has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity (≥25 kg/


  • Author

    Osornprasop,Sutayut, Zheng,Rong, Hufanga,Sione Vaioleti, Latu,Catherine Faleola, Lounkaew,Kiatanantha, Krahn,Jutta, Ve’etutu, Erling, Latailakepa,Sela Ailine Lupeongo, Viriyataveekul,Sarulchana, Wang, Yang, Hu, Xiao, Saumaki,Sione Kemoeatu, Lolohea, Kilifi

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    Working Paper

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    Pacific Islands,

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    Using Taxation to Address Noncommunicable Diseases : Lessons from Tonga

  • Keywords

    civil society forum; excise tax; consumption; health systems in transition; increase consumer price; Maternal and Child Mortality; high-fructose corn syrup; primary health care system; health expenditure per capita; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; excise tax on import; antenatal and postnatal care; manufactured cigarettes; tax revenue; consumption behavior; price change; retail price; total tax; fruit and vegetable; healthy food; excise tax rates; consumption of chicken; health care service; harmful alcohol use; change in consumption; body mass index; elasticity of demand; alcohol consumption behavior; Development Policy Operation; distribution of household; tax on cigarette; health and nutrition; tax on consumption; child health outcomes; cost of living; reduction in consumption; public health infrastructure; tobacco control activity; causes of mortality; High Blood Pressure; health promotion activities; health promotion activity; approach to surveillance; lack of knowledge; form of sale; consumption of tobacco; total fertility rate; Stunted Growth; scaling up nutrition; ad valorem tax; value added tax; impact of tax; health promotion interventions; people with disability; unhealthy food; food product; Tax Exemption; wealth quintile; consumption tax; tax policy; taxation policy; tobacco tax; behavior change; Cardiovascular Disease; descriptive statistic; physical activity; sin tax; Fiscal policies; fiscal policy; baseline data; total sample; fresh fish; tax increase; healthy lifestyle; vegetable garden; related taxes; church leaders; qualitative study; price policy; tobacco consumption; import duty; premature death; fiscal system; Tobacco Taxation; annual tax; low-income household; tax structure; simulation model; sectoral ministries; equity impact; respiratory disease; positive impact; fresh fruit; government revenue; young woman; recent years; saturated fat; caloric consumption; cigarette consumption; noncommunicable diseases; higher consumption; annual budget; low consumption; alcohol tax; land area; household survey; complementary measure; development partner; household characteristic; foreign affair; in work; price reduction; good monitoring; assessment tool; raised bed; price gap; chronic disease; household questionnaire; catholic church; funding support; recycled water; behavioral factor; chronic lung; consumer community; heart attack; consultation meeting; tobacco leaves; tobacco abuse; empirical support; food intake; cheap meat; in school; nutritional benefit; household expenditure; consumer tax; heart disease; healthy behaviour; price level; negative sign; consumption survey; price control; cigarette demand; package food; corn sweetener; government administrative; population group; retail men; Health ministries; mass media; international communications; tax substance; health economist; high tax; social media; price shock; raw sugar; consumption pattern; high-income household; Ownership Share Type; working-age population; commercial sector; public knowledge; inclusive growth; health status; food expenditure; cigarette smoker; subsistence agriculture; gender distribution; salaried employment; natural disaster; environmental shock; trade deficit; external aid; national income; premature mortality; rising trend; maternal death; live birth; Maternal Mortality; socio-economic status; price elasticity; community mobilization; illicit trade; processed food; dramatic reduction; sales volume; high mortality; production volume; cigarette brands; behavioral response; cash crop; unhealthy environment; young age; higher taxation; dietary practice; price rise; tax rise; large population; global standard; healthy eating; promoting health; lower price; international border; enabling environment; prevention activities; social cost; home production; chicken farm; demonstration programs; foreign fishing; average change; government tax; health challenge; rural difference; evidence-based policy; consumer behavior; global market



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Osornprasop,Sutayut Zheng,Rong Hufanga,Sione Vaioleti Latu,Catherine Faleola Lounkaew,Kiatanantha Krahn,Jutta Ve’etutu, Erling Latailakepa,Sela Ailine Lupeongo Viriyataveekul,Sarulchana Wang, Yang Hu, Xiao Saumaki,Sione Kemoeatu Lolohea, Kilifi

Using Taxation to Address Noncommunicable Diseases : Lessons from Tonga (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.