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Barriers to the Inclusion of Women and Marginalized Groups in Nigeria’s ID System : Findings and Solutions from an In-Depth Qualitative Study (English)

An estimated one billion people around the world do not have an officially recognized means of identification (ID). The majority live in low-income countries (LICs), particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This study contributes to an overarching goal of building global knowledge about increasing women’s and marginalized groups’ access to and use of IDs to promote development. There is little systematic evidence about the causes of gender gaps or the exclusion of particular groups from possession of government-recognized IDs. The study aims to analyze gaps in access to the national ID issued by Nigeria’s National Identity Management Commission (NIMC), and provide evidence-based advice to policy makers on how to lift the constraints that create high barriers for women and marginalized groups.


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    Hanmer,Lucia C., Esquivel-Korsiak,Victoria, Pande,Rohini P.

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    Africa West,

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    Barriers to the Inclusion of Women and Marginalized Groups in Nigeria’s ID System : Findings and Solutions from an In-Depth Qualitative Study

  • Keywords

    marginalized group; Gender-Based Violence; gender gap in access; Demographic and Health Survey; gender gap in education; access to government service; access to essential service; know how; low levels of education; person with disability; Identification for Development; barriers for woman; older woman; qualitative study; million people; word of mouth; provision of access; inclusion of women; privileges and immunity; intimate partner violence; old man; attitudes toward women; forms of abuse; victims of gender; barrier to education; staff id; theft of cattle; labor force participation; low population density; proof of identity; treatment of woman; complete secondary school; formal financial service; female genital mutilation; high fertility rate; maternal mortality rate; rapid population growth; equality for woman; billion people; place of origin; risk of exclusion; disabled people; girls with disability; social protection scheme; treatment person; qualitative data collection; individuals with disability; remote rural community; Internally Displaced People; categories of citizens; cost of transport; citizens at risk; child in school; local government area; women with disability; barriers in access; exclusion from society; Access to Education; Child Marriage; young woman; Gender Inequality; gender inequalities; social group; inclusive growth; photo credit; Distance Learning; young men; general population; Host Communities; household level; gender norm; national identity; global knowledge; digital identification; eligibility criterion; registration process; rural area; security personnel; vulnerable group; remote area; ecosystem model; ethnic group; national population; data sharing; social status; ID Systems; pastoral population; regional variation; legal residents; recent years; marital status; nomadic pastoralist; food insecurity; internal displacement; rural man; urban woman; gender impact; blood type; youth unemployment; geographical remoteness; gender difference; disability status; population size; ethnic identities; rising inequality; individual level; social cohesion; full participation; language barrier; community level; international passport; birth certificate; government staff; poor household; muslim woman; Social Conflict; political pressure; legal definition; african study; Violent Conflict; middle belt; pastoral migration; cattle rustling; surrounding community; adversely impact; traditional culture; utility bill; send money; reasons given; emotional response; government issue; female participant; community awareness; islamic value; able-bodied people; identity documents; social stigma; limited mobility; early marriage; Equal Opportunity; gainful employment; physical barrier; cultural beliefs; minority group; professional job; full-time employment; community family; female participation; low rate; political institution; married woman; human capital; gap index; food shortage; recent estimates; low trust; legal residency; unaccompanied minors; poor sanitation; Global Gender; resource scarcity; resource endowments; productive potential; employment statistic; data portal; Thought Leadership; copyright owner; governmental institutions; empowering women; diagnostic work; individual benefits; informal payment; document requirement; rural location; survey respondent; sex distribution; digital development; awareness raising; knowledge gap; raise awareness; civil registration; Gender Equality; social media; adult man; adult woman; Learning and Innovation Credit; research assistance; identification system; recent development; longer distance; sole responsibility; commercial purpose; original work; focus group; informant interviews



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Hanmer,Lucia C. Esquivel-Korsiak,Victoria Pande,Rohini P.

Barriers to the Inclusion of Women and Marginalized Groups in Nigeria’s ID System : Findings and Solutions from an In-Depth Qualitative Study (English). Identification for Development Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.