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International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania (English)

This paper examines the role of male-dominated international migration in shaping labor market outcomes by gender in migrant-sending households in Albania. Using detailed information on family migration experience from the latest Living Standards Measurement Study survey, the authors find that male and female labor supplies respond differently to the current and past migration episodes of household members. Controlling for the potential endogeneity of migration and for the income (remittances) effect, the estimates show that having a migrant abroad decreases female paid labor supply and increases unpaid work. However, women with past family migration experience are significantly more likely to engage in self-employment and less likely to supply unpaid work. The same relationships do not hold for men. These findings suggest that over time male-dominated Albanian migration may lead to women's empowerment in access to income-earning opportunities at the origin.

Details

  • Author

    Carletto,Calogero, Mendola,Mariapia

  • Document Date

    2009/04/01

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS4900

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Albania,

  • Region

    Europe and Central Asia,

  • Disclosure Date

    2010/07/01

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania

  • Keywords

    impact of migration on poverty;female labor force participation;female labor supply;migration experience;labor force participation rate;access to labor market;female labor market participation;average level of education;unpaid work;labor market outcome;labor market behavior;working age population;linear probability model;forms of migration;formal labor market;employment rate;Migration and Remittances;public sector employment;allocation of resource;labor market impact;flow of remittance;local labor market;informal labor market;development research group;female household member;human capital accumulation;number of males;differences in results;labor market situation;public employment service;control over resources;types of migration;rates of unemployment;households with migrants;centrally planned economy;total labor force;labor market activity;private sector employment;labor market performance;labor market trend;department of economics;country of origin;amount of income;average household income;unpaid family worker;consequence of migration;role of remittance;employment at home;loss of work;traditional gender roles;labor supply decisions;child care cost;forms of participation;age of child;inflow of remittance;household and individual;child care services;national unemployment rate;garbage collection service;information on migration;increase in labor;migration episode;family migration;migration status;employment outcome;unpaid worker;income effect;international migrant;migrant household;individual characteristic;wage employment;labor hour;male migration;regional characteristic;migration network;Gender Gap;instrumental variable;migration variables;traditional society;employment gap;empirical evidence;migration behavior;informal sector;return migrant;migration decision;exogenous income;explanatory variable;labor outcomes;exclusion restriction;migrant network;behavioral impact;consistent estimate;household head;demographic characteristic;household size;negative effect;reservation wage;endogenous variable;Temporary Migration;direct migration;multivariate analysis;robustness check;married woman;opportunity cost;transition economy;regression model;family characteristic;Transition economies;household economy;home production;family structure;sensitivity analysis;positive impact;geographic proximity;household production;bargaining power;economic hardship;individual consumption;household level;female employment;labor participation;marginal effect;educated woman;baseline regression;female work;potential migrant;permanent migration;individual response;representative sample;temporary migrant;empirical model;source country;unobserved characteristic;Learning and Innovation Credit;descriptive statistic;market wage;marital status;migrant outflow;migration history;agricultural work;foreign earnings;transition countries;foreign labor;economic independence;random variable;transition country;migration measurement;labor input;international income;local market;occupational opportunity;exogenous variable;welfare impact;downward bias;female participation;Labor migration;migration process;alternative specification;socio-economic status;gain control;demand equation;household model;positive income;baseline model;net effect;Informal Jobs;gender bias;circular migration;credit access;selection bias;behavioral effect;work force;male wage;remote area;transition process;multifaceted nature;credit constraint;contemporaneous correlation;gender inequalities;household wealth;measurement error;ceteris paribus;high wage;age structure;migrant status;Gender Inequality;womens work;employment differentials;educational level;work participation;employment opportunity;educated adult;information cost;employment opportunities;standard error;fixed effect;female child;gender relation;positive correlation;cultural norm;working time;household structure;comparative advantage;young child;information channel;agricultural labor;migration destination;wage differential;extended family

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Citation

Carletto,Calogero Mendola,Mariapia

International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania (English). Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 4900 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/892271468006291314/International-migration-and-gender-differentials-in-the-home-labor-market-evidence-from-Albania