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Growing old in an older Brazil : implications of population aging on growth, poverty, public finance, and service delivery (English)

This chapter introduces the main issues associated with population aging, many of which will be investigated in detail throughout the volume. The next section describes the demographic transformation that Brazil has been experiencing and highlights its specific features, including a very rapid population aging process in the next few decades. Then the main economic framework behind this work, the life cycle theory according to which individuals' economic behavior varies according to their age, is discussed. The section after that introduces the first and second demographic dividends associated with the changing population age structure that accompanies the demographic transition of any country. Next covered is how poverty is linked to the life cycle in Brazil and the role of public transfers in reducing poverty among different age groups, followed by an investigation of how public expenditures vary across age groups and generations and what makes Brazil distinct from comparable OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and Latin American countries. Concluding the chapter are the main findings of the report.


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    Fruttero,Anna, Gragnolati,Michele, Jorgensen,Ole Hagen, Rocha, Romera

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    Other Social Protection Study

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    Latin America & Caribbean,

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    Growing old in an older Brazil : implications of population aging on growth, poverty, public finance, and service delivery

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    Population Aging;labor market need;elderly population;life expectancy at birth;sustainable development and poverty reduction;Population Age structure;average number of child;social and economic development;public health care expenditures;conditional cash transfer program;brazilian family;pay as you go;implications for policy;early childhood development program;social security system;demographic change;Demographic Transition;old population;productive labor force;general equilibrium model;Poverty & Inequality;net present value;quality of education;working-age population;accumulation of capital;human capital formation;generation of children;labor force participation;status of woman;health care spending;segments of society;increase in expenditure;ratio of dependents;increase in income;income of individuals;early child development;aggregate saving rate;long-term economic growth;social security contribution;partial equilibrium model;old-age dependency ratio;opportunities for youth;process of development;terms of education;improvements in health;social insurance program;health care use;adequate health care;access to training;emerging market economy;public sector spending;ischemic heart disease;early child education;challenges of population;primary health care;resources per student;labor force composition;purchasing power parity;rapid population aging;total fertility rate;transition period;public transfer;pension system;working age;demographic dividend;capital accumulation;retirement age;average wage;school-age population;Population Growth;public policy;long-term care;young age;socioeconomic transformation;political reality;Basic Education;affluent society;health expenditure;public education;fiscal pressure;demographic indicator;productivity growth;public finance;vulnerable group;comparator country;socioeconomic development;economic institution;economic security;fiscal cost;fertility decline;saving behavior;pension reform;brazilian women;labor supply;old people;demography;worker increase;replacement rate;crowding out;lifetime income;daily life;endogenous increase;political agenda;financial market;home country;private saving;pensionable age;epidemiological profile;care system;richer countries;federal policy;Welfare systems;poor child;finance education;legal immigrants;mandatory retirement;home countries;aggregate output;strategic areas;public pension;gross income;lifelong learning;Urban Planning;job market;driving force;younger generation;Elderly People;health benefit;birth cohort;income security;social institution;aging process;Cardiovascular Disease;youth population;old age;social policy;informal sector;social policies;low-skilled worker;benefit equal;institutional change;government service;inclusive development;long life;Social Welfare;high inflation;subsidiary right;empirical evidence;applicable law;inflection point;dependent population;informal care;student enter;investment level;Job Quality;Education Quality;live birth;population decline;Social Protection;aging population;pension cost;catastrophic consequence;project costing;fiscal outlook;high fertility;home care;age composition;social value;family caregiver;benefit coverage;rural area;negative incentive;minimum wage;international competitiveness;minimum age;early retirement;adult life;high extent;negative effect;targeted training;geographic area;working life;aging society;healthy women;brazilian society;educational quality;demographic trend;demographic dynamic;demographic transformation;public expenditure;Fiscal Sustainability;increasing costs;



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Fruttero,Anna Gragnolati,Michele Jorgensen,Ole Hagen Rocha, Romera

Growing old in an older Brazil : implications of population aging on growth, poverty, public finance, and service delivery (English). Directions in development ; human development Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.