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Myanmar Country Environmental Analysis – Sustainability, Peace, and Prosperity : Forests, Fisheries, and Environmental Management – Forest Resources Sector Report (English)

Myanmar's forest and timber sector has been central to the country's economy and society, particularly over the last century. Myanmar's forests contain some of the most valued species in the world—particularly rosewood, ironwood, and teak. Myanmar also has one of the most longstanding forest management systems in the tropics. Today, despite reduced timber extraction revenues, wood industry still generates over 8 percent of formal government revenues. Beyond timber, rural society largely depends on non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and agroforestry for food, medicine, and wood fuel, which is by far the most important energy source in rural Myanmar, with between 60 percent and 80 percent of communities relying on this source. Some of Myanmar's forests also form some of the world's most critically important biodiversity 'hotspots'. Despite all of the progress made, there is still a lot of room for improvement and for higher ambition. The report analyzes the underlying challenges, builds on international best practice, and makes recommendations. Some of the recommendations include : create delivery mechanisms to scale up CF within the PFE, despite high degradation of production forests, sustainable forest management is still viable in some areas but needs a critical stock-taking effort, promote enabling environment for private plantations, increase protected forests area to 10 percent of total land area, and to implement the challenging reform process, the FD will need additional skills, budget, technology support, and civil society support.


  • Author

    Win,Aye Marlar, Verheijen,Lesya, Doetinchem,Nina, Fodor,Martin, Springate-Baginski,Oliver, Ling,Stephen, Hunter,Rory John, Aung,Thiri, Kornexl,Werner L.

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  • Document Type

    Working Paper

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  • Region

    East Asia and Pacific,

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  • Doc Name

    Myanmar Country Environmental Analysis – Sustainability, Peace, and Prosperity : Forests, Fisheries, and Environmental Management – Forest Resources Sector Report

  • Keywords

    small and medium enterprise; women in leadership position; sustainable management of forest; forest ecosystem; wood product; international good practice; source of energy; gross domestic product; forest management plan; mangrove ecosystem; incidence of poverty; damage from flood; Natural Resource Management; combination of factor; number of jobs; erosion control measures; rural income generation; mixed deciduous forest; availability of data; correlation between poverty; customary tenure systems; ethnic minority groups; extreme weather event; production and export; Rule of Law; grievance redress mechanism; river basin level; sustainable forest management; forest carbon stock; private sector partnership; civil society support; forest management system; community forest management; accurate data collection; total energy consumption; flora and fauna; revenue management system; distribution of land; loss of revenue; area of forest; enabling policy environment; urban land use; local climate change; accelerating climate change; chain of custody; tropical evergreen forest; forest sector; wood fuel; forest degradation; export ban; land area; coastal protection; forestry sector; shifting cultivation; ethnic group; forest product; Forest Conservation; intact forest; export earning; timber product; watershed protection; export value; coastal area; export earnings; mangrove forest; enabling environment; rural area; reserved forest; forest land; wood export; rural society; forest governance; cultural value; canopy cover; Disaster Risk; investment climate; timber extraction; timber production; peace process; soil nutrient; ecosystem service; hydrological functions; fish stock; coastal communities; tropical cyclone; natural disaster; Technology Transfer; outgrower scheme; community engagement; delivery mechanism; land-use conversion; forest restoration; land classification; basic food; export data; rural woman; real gdp; cultural tradition; upland area; legal framework; informal sector; community outreach; Resource Curse; legal recognition; river flow; domestic cost; grid electricity; fuel substitution; technology solution; illegal import; rural population; protection service; enterprise partnership; short-term benefits; cash generation; ethnic community; financial service; fodder collection; adequate capacity; public forest; support system; local management; local elite; forest watershed; mangrove fisheries; forest stock; sustainable practices; commercial development; gender equity; anecdotal evidence; gender activities; forest policies; youth association; participatory community; particle board; wage earnings; informal employment; informal business; wood production; livelihood program; wood pellet; forest administration; commercial purpose; open tender; ecotourism activities; women entrepreneurship; non-governmental organization; local market; official exports; tree species; poor household; community forestry; community consultation; focus group; income opportunity; private company; plantation sector; marginal benefit; environmental standard; accurate assessment; partnership agreement; Public-Private Partnership; fiscal incentive; management framework; financial feasibility; reform process; technology support; community group; private entity; Gender Gap; basic household; commercial production; double burden; storm protection; Government Accounts; farm management; fundamental problem; destination country; Natural Resources; Armed Conflict; forest tenure; sacred forests; logging operations; hill area; Rural Poor; upland forests; burial grounds; mountain area; bottom quintile; equitable benefit; forested landscape; ethnic majority; rural land; primary forest; government revenue; land management; wood industry; primary sector; value species; marine species; industrial process; formal trade; headcount poverty; international network; development pathway; healthy forests; european commission; government property; leaf litter; primary fuel



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Win,Aye Marlar Verheijen,Lesya Doetinchem,Nina Fodor,Martin Springate-Baginski,Oliver Ling,Stephen Hunter,Rory John Aung,Thiri Kornexl,Werner L.

Myanmar Country Environmental Analysis – Sustainability, Peace, and Prosperity : Forests, Fisheries, and Environmental Management – Forest Resources Sector Report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.