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People and Forest Interface : Contribution of Liberia’s Forests to Household Incomes, Subsistence, and Resilience (English)

Liberia is one of the most forested countries in West Africa, with more than two thirds of its land surface covered by forest. The National Forest Inventory, conducted by the Liberia Forestry Development Authority in 2018 and 2019, estimates the forest cover in Liberia to be 6.69 million hectares which is approximately 69 percent of the total landmass. Liberia’s formal (measured) forest contribution to the national economy runs between nine and 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Forestry is the fourth largest contributor to economy, after services, agriculture and fisheries, and mining and panning. According to the 2020 Forest Resources Assessment produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as of 2015, around 39,880 full time equivalent workers (of which about 35 percent women) were formally employed by the sector.2 However, the formal sector is just a small part of the story. Clearly, forest-related products and environmental services make significant contributions to the subsistence, incomes, employment and coping needs of poor rural households (HHs). Yet, in national income accounting, these contributions are often ignored, or are only partially measured. This is as true for Liberia as for many other countries worldwide. Without detailed data on HH and forest interactions, policy makers are unable to understand the economic and social interactions between HHs and forests and the effects these have on both people and forests. This data-gap was emphasized in the Liberia Country Forest Note prepared in 2018 and the Liberia National Household Forest Survey (NHFS) was implemented to close this data gap. Significant dependence of forest proximate HHs on forests for subsistence needs and incomes was the main prior assumption for the survey.


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    Hooda,Neeta, Ahuja,Naysa, Costa,Valentina, Gourlay,Sydney, Kishor,Nalin M., Murray,Siobhan, Verheijen,Lesya

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    Africa West, Other,

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    People and Forest Interface : Contribution of Liberia’s Forests to Household Incomes, Subsistence, and Resilience

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    Center for International Forestry Research; forest product; Climate Change and Poverty; sustainable management of forest; capacity building of community; tragedy of the commons; community management of forests; climate change adaptive capacity; severe acute respiratory syndrome; source income; source of income; use of forest; sustainable forest management; high poverty rate; access to forest; income generation activities; data collection process; social and environmental; economies of scale; full time equivalent; income generating activity; data on income; participation of woman; small-scale gold mining; community level meetings; social protection system; role of forests; value of forests; international development partner; rates of participation; issue of gender; source of food; availability of resource; demand for service; per capita income; national poverty line; Check and Balances; loss of income; lack of money; gap in knowledge; nontimber forest products; participation by woman; forest carbon stock; barrier to woman; number of women; national income accounting; poor rural household; national forest policy; improved food security; capacity of community; community forest management; energy need; subsistence need; female participation; food insecurity; survey instrument; clearing forest; traditional medicine; construction material; environmental service; forest enterprise; community survey; external support; rural population; informal rule; natural shock; national household; community questionnaire; communal land; food price; food shortage; forest activities; forest communities; charcoal demand; annual revenue; permanent job; milling sector; charcoal production; informal sector; regional cluster; natural forest; forest degradation; market potential; focus group; national economy; land surface; sustainable use; increased income; collected information; Gender Equality; value addition; survey sample; zoonotic disease; crop plant; modern medicine; protected area; medical assistance; local participation; livelihood opportunity; forest ecosystem; opportunity cost; forest land; managed forest; deforestation rate; equitable sharing; women's empowerment; forest reserve; improve forest; best practice; female empowerment; gender bias; community interaction; shifting cultivation; local income; community enterprises; rural community; income source; energy source; socioeconomic factors; road density; data library; deforestation control; oil palm; white area; subsistence consumption; canopy cover; survey data; direct consumption; timber production; conservation corridor; new information; remote location; economic shock; community forestry; forest ownership; average period; consumption need; basic infrastructure; government support; non-governmental organization; regional variation; rural income; vicious cycle; crop intensification; poverty trap; market access; protein requirement; informal worker; alternative livelihood; baseline scenario; downside scenario; community initiative; community needs; fuel saving; improving governance; future need; small-scale miner; mining activity; vulnerable communities; law makers; value chain; long-term sustainability; sustainable livelihood; community awareness; community head; access market; food need; fuelwood collection; participation rate; commercial product; skill development; finished wood; finished product; furniture stores; primary producer; positive impact; ecosystem service; computer assist; headcount poverty; accurate information; gender issue; forest sector; electronic capture; abandoned land; rural livelihood; medical need; community meetings; socioeconomic development; survey implementation; survey enumerator; local processing; social interaction; noncommercial purposes; subsidiary right; Natural Resources; Blue Economy; survey questionnaire; administrative center; charcoal industry; cluster of characteristics; survey results; household income



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Hooda,Neeta Ahuja,Naysa Costa,Valentina Gourlay,Sydney Kishor,Nalin M. Murray,Siobhan Verheijen,Lesya

People and Forest Interface : Contribution of Liberia’s Forests to Household Incomes, Subsistence, and Resilience (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.