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Agro-logistics in Central America : a supply chain approach - background paper (English)

This chapter uses supply chain analysis (SCA) to identify transport and logistics bottlenecks that add costs, times and uncertainty to the exportation of perishable agricultural products from Central America. Macro-level analyses of logistics performance, including the logistics performance index, Doing Business Reports and Enterprise Surveys of the World Bank, as well as the Global Competitiveness Index of the Global Economic Forum, often leave policy-makers unclear on exactly what poor performance means for exporters and producers in Central America. How does poor road quality eat away at the profit margins of my country's producers? Extensive procedures add time to export processes, but how much time? How and to what extend does this additional time hurt the competitiveness of key industries? How does this effect vary by product type? By tracking the movement of seven carefully selected exports, these supply chains complement macro-level analyses by answering these questions for some of the region's key agricultural exports. A range of unique characteristics makes the success of perishable exports exceedingly dependent on the efficiency of the related logistics systems and the ability to connect effectively and reliably to global supply chains. Remote production zones add cost, time and variability to transport from the farm gate to the distribution, collection or processing center. Increasingly complicated international sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPS) add institutional and procedural complexity to the supply chain. Above all, the time sensitivity of most perishable products increases the value of time and makes cold chain infrastructure and the availability of refrigerated containers essential for successful exportation.


  • Author

    Fries, Gwyneth Fernandez, Raquel

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    Working Paper

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  • Country

    Latin America,


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    Latin America & Caribbean,

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  • Doc Name

    Agro-logistics in Central America : a supply chain approach - background paper

  • Keywords

    supply chain;sanitary and phytosanitary standards;small and medium size enterprise;logistics cost;organic coffee;perishable agricultural product;global supply chain;distribution center;port of destination;poor road quality;quality and quantity;volume of trade;movement of good;food export market;port of entry;kilometers per hour;types of cargo;small producer;beef export;logistics system;perishable product;vegetable and fruit;price of transport;international shipping agency;Access to Electricity;cost of capital;third party logistic;terms of trade;roads and highway;public sector official;point of entry;agricultural protection;infrastructure and services;poor rural road;risk management procedure;point of production;supply chain actor;chamber of commerce;transport service provider;diversity of products;movement of cargo;receipt of payment;point of consumption;waiting for transport;radial road network;access to information;public policy decision;export supply chain;small dairy farmer;international shipping line;transport cost;border crossing;ground beef;agricultural good;national laboratory;cold chain;dairy product;refrigerated storage;high transport;perishable good;refrigerated containers;cardboard boxes;export volume;export product;fresh fruit;sanitary inspection;customs broker;tertiary road;intraregional trade;border management;logistics performance;cattle rancher;dairy exporter;transport regulation;process plant;food price;reefer container;primary market;international food;frozen beef;export permit;temperature control;Agricultural Trade;individual producers;border inspection;consumer price;security service;administrative constraint;local collection;smaller vehicle;refrigerated vehicle;transit corridor;cattle grazing;small fee;sale price;large business;secondary city;real time;official flow;illegal trade;cream product;beef sector;market price;capital increase;cattle industry;transport company;rural market;container truck;food product;shipping industry;fresh salmon;trucking service;perishable food;spatial model;market success;price transmission;market demand;large-scale production;dominant market;temperature regulation;trade partnership;analytical tool;fresh tomato;road haulage;export houses;strategic interest;conventional coffee;working capital;shelf life;monetary term;mountainous terrain;fresh product;agricultural sector;retail market;trade pattern;cost-benefit analysis;exporting country;freight service;personal transport;rehabilitation costs;trucking company;private company;container ship;freight forwarder;international actor;pervasive insecurity;inadequate infrastructure;international cargo;coffee cooperatives;parking area;manufactured goods;customs official;rural production;food processing;soft infrastructure;level of support;document processing;vehicle capacity;Phytosanitary Measures;future research;cost structure;wholesale price;laboratory fee;leave policy;hidden cost;profit margin;product type;export competitiveness;city congestion;container security;inspection process;average speed;customs systems;central regions;disease outbreak;online platform;cattle farmer;paved road;primary road;regional collaboration;cost burden;trade route;spatial planning;large estates;meat product;expected loss;storage facility;production lot;institutional enhancement;security patrol;laboratory result;export procedure;procedural inefficiency;international norm;neutral party;customs agency;local market;unpaved road;destination market;domestic consumption;small farmer;shipping company;poor infrastructure;vehicle type;market participation;land area;fresh vegetable;freight handling;security clearance;



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Fries, Gwyneth Fernandez, Raquel

Agro-logistics in Central America : a supply chain approach - background paper (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.