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One health : operational framework for strengthening human, animal, and environmental public health systems at their interface (English)

Public health systems have critical and clear relevance to the World Bank’s twin goals of poverty eradication and boosting shared prosperity. In particular, they are impacted by, and must respond to, significant threats at the human-animal-environment interface. Most obvious are the diseases shared between humans and animals (“zoonotic” diseases), which comprise more than 60 percent of known human infectious pathogens, but also aspects of vector-borne disease, food and water safety and security, and antimicrobial resistance. Public health systems must therefore be resilient and prepared to face existing and future disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface. This Operational Framework provides a practical reference toward achieving that aim, with the following key objectives: i) Provide operational guidance to directly address the need for targeted investments that prevent, prepare, detect, respond to, and recover from issues like diseases with endemic, emerging, and pandemic potential, including antimicrobial resistance; ii) Showcase opportunities for targeting disease threats upstream (prevention at the source, or via early detection and effective response) to help reduce the frequency and impact of emergencies the system has to react to; ii) Jointly yield long-term gains (and consider trade-offs) in human health, animal production, and environmental management, ultimately improving overall health of the planet and the lives, livelihoods, and well-being of people; Outline activities and interventions with a starting point at the human-animal-environment interface, highlight proposed methods of institutional and technical implementation, and enable mechanisms of coordination and partnership to build more collaborative public health systems. In its entirety, the Operational Framework provides a strong orientation to One Health to assist users in understanding and implementing it, from rationale to concrete guidance for its application. Six core chapters are included, supported by annexes diving deeper into operational tools and recent World Bank alignment with One Health topics, and a glossary that explains key terms, including interpretations specific to the Operational Framework. Chapter one presents background on the need and scope for One Health, showing how it is inclusive of and can be useful in addressing a broad range of priorities for human and animal health and environment sectors. Chapter two reviews the economic argument for One Health for the global and local public good both through more effective disease prevention and control, as well as operational efficiencies at country and project levels. Chapter three showcases relevant tools and initiatives for One Health that support capacity for human, animal, and/or environmental health sectors, bringing them together and articulating possible connections as well as identifying priority areas for further development to aid in successful One Health operations, with additional examples provided in the Annex. Chapters four to six present specific applications of One Health. Examples of entry points for One Health thinking are shown in Chapter four, including determining relevance of different sectors for involvement based on the specific context. Chapter five outlines the building blocks for embedding One Health approaches to prepare for endemic, emerging, and pandemic threats, all the way from disease prevention to recovery. Finally, noting the challenge of monitoring progress across sectors, Chapter six outlines possible pathways for monitoring and upscaling, showcasing indicators from relevant Bank projects. Ideally, projects will be designed with One Health intent from the onset, allowing Task Team Leaders (TTLs) to align their tools, investments, and indicators to yield added value from One Health.


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    Berthe,Franck Cesar Jean, Bouley,Timothy, Karesh,William B., Legall,Issa Chabwera, Machalaba,Catherine Christina, Plante,Caroline Aurelie, Seifman,Richard M.

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    Working Paper

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    The World Region,

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    One health : operational framework for strengthening human, animal, and environmental public health systems at their interface

  • Keywords

    Environment and Natural Resources; public health system; multilateral development bank; United Nations Environment Programme; Infectious Disease; disaster risk reduction approach; Technical and Financial Partners; results framework; economic and financial analysis; convention on biological diversity; environmental health; burden of disease; land use change; global public good; zoonotic disease; mechanisms of coordination; emerging infectious disease; organization of work; antimicrobial resistance; rapid population growth; economies of scale; impact on health; disease control program; good governance principles; natural resource depletion; veterinary public health; standard operating procedure; long-term economic growth; agricultural production system; world war ii; previous one; animal health system; public health service; poverty reduction effort; capacity of individual; risk management strategy; spread of disease; health of humans; health and environment; local public good; environmental health interventions; infectious zoonotic disease; disease control effort; natural resource extraction; global environmental change; risk of disease; human pandemic preparedness; public health challenge; transmission of infection; extreme weather event; response to emergency; return on investment; public health authority; veterinary medicine; global health; early detection; pandemic threat; Global Programs



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Berthe,Franck Cesar Jean Bouley,Timothy Karesh,William B. Legall,Issa Chabwera Machalaba,Catherine Christina Plante,Caroline Aurelie Seifman,Richard M.

One health : operational framework for strengthening human, animal, and environmental public health systems at their interface (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.