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Jobs, growth, and governance in the Middle East and North Africa : Unlocking the potential for prosperity (Arabic)

This report identifies the following as the fundamental challenges and changes that the Middle East and Africa must meet and make in order to improve living standards over the next two decades: Between eighty and one hundred million new jobs to be created by 2020. Economic growth to be lifted from a sluggish 3.4 percent over the late 1990s to at least 6-7 percent a year. Governance to move from traditional autocracies to more inclusive governments, accountable to the people. Women to be more equitably included in economic activity and to harness the significant potential economic benefits from an increasingly educated and healthy female population. Public sectors to open the door to more private initiative. Economies dependent on oil and workers' remittances to diversify into manufacturing and services. Closed trading regimes to integrate with new trading partners in the region and the world. Impossible? No. Imperative? Yes. The political imperatives for such change and the stability of the old order are two opposing forces. The balance is shifting toward the need for reform as joblessness and slow growth make the old order increasingly costly and unsustainable.


  • Author

    Atsavasirilert,Wallada, Keller,Jennifer L., Luangpenthong,Angkanee, Matin,Kazi Mahbub-Al, Thonggampai, Ruangrong

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    Working Paper

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  • Country

    Middle East and North Africa,

  • Region

    Middle East and North Africa,

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  • Doc Name

    Jobs, growth, and governance in the Middle East and North Africa : Unlocking the potential for prosperity

  • Keywords

    Accountability, accounting, aging, agricultural production, aquifers, average level, budget deficits, central planning, citizens, civil society, consolidation, Country Average, debt, deficits, demographics, direct investment, discrimination, Dividends, economic activity, economic change, Economic growth, economic instruments, economic policies, employment, environmental degradation, exchange rate, expenditures, External accountability, families, financial sector, financial services, financial stability, financial systems, girls, good governance, governance challenges, governance processes, Governance Quality, government expenditures, growth rate, growth rates, health care, Health indicators, high unemployment, housing, illiteracy, imports, improving governance, income, Income Growth, income inequality, Infant mortality, Inflation, institutional arrangements, institutional reform, insurance, internal accountability, international trade, investment climate, Labor Force, labor markets, Labor Supply, Life expectancy, living standards, Macroeconomic imbalances, macroeconomic performance, Macroeconomic Stability, macroeconomic stabilization, Middle East, Middle Income Country, migration, national policies, new entrants, North Africa, oil, Oil prices, oil reserves, oil sector, opportunity costs, Per Capita Incomes, Political economy, political structures, Population growth, private sector, privatization, producers, productivity, productivity growth, property rights, public employment, public expenditures, public health, public officials, public sector, public services, real prices, rule of law, service delivery, social development, social groups, social policies, social policy, social programs, social security, social services, Socioeconomic Development, state enterprises, streams, subsidiary, Sustainable water, tax reforms, taxation, transparency, transport, unemployment, unemployment rates, urban areas, wages, water pollution, water pricing, water supply, water use, workers, working conditions, workplace, young workers



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Atsavasirilert,Wallada Keller,Jennifer L. Luangpenthong,Angkanee Matin,Kazi Mahbub-Al Thonggampai, Ruangrong

Jobs, growth, and governance in the Middle East and North Africa : Unlocking the potential for prosperity (Arabic). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.