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Who should be at the top of bottom-up development a case study of the national rural livelihoods mission in Rajasthan, India (English)

It is widely acknowledged that top-down support is essential for bottom-up participatory projects to be effectively implemented at scale. However, which level of government, national or sub-national, should be given the responsibility to implement such projects is an open question, with wide variations in practice. This paper analyzes qualitative and quantitative data from a natural experiment in the state of Rajasthan in India, where a large national flagship project that mobilized women into self-help groups for micro-credit and created a women's network for other development activities was implemented in two different ways. Some sub-regions were given to the state government of Rajasthan to manage, while the Government of India centrally managed other sub-regions. The study finds that the nature of top-down management had a large bearing on the nature and quality of local-level facilitation. Centrally and locally managed facilitators formed several groups with similar financial performance. But centrally managed facilitators formed groups that were less likely to engage in collective action, be politically active, and engage with other civil society organizations. These results raise important questions on how responsibilities for participatory development projects should be devolved, and how the nature of management affects the sustainability of bottom-up interventions.


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    Joshi,Shareen, Rao,Vijayendra

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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    South Asia,

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    Who should be at the top of bottom-up development ? a case study of the national rural livelihoods mission in Rajasthan, India

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    Education and Development;economic self-reliance;literacy rate for female;Poverty & Inequality;Community Involvement in Education;personal experience of poverty;efficiency of resource allocation;difference in outcomes;public service delivery;market exchange rate;increase in income;primarily due;community health care;community health worker;community development program;poverty alleviation program;community investment fund;opportunity for woman;increase in consumption;household survey data;improvements in water;basic food item;division of labor;source income;source of income;local woman;quantitative data;central management;home state;Rural Poor;self-help group;social mobilization;participatory development;baseline survey;local ngo;qualitative data;survey enumerator;local counterpart;Public Services;community drive;role models;village woman;natural experiment;descriptive statistic;working relationship;resource mapping;administrative datum;decentralized management;political issue;rural area;local elite;social force;credit group;political structure;social mapping;political competition;smaller group;national legislation;treatment group;aggregate data;raw data;survey questionnaire;institution building;field trip;public good;free access;wealth ranking;nutritional improvement;secondary data;economic empowerment;operational aspect;political mobilization;social change;social capital;subsequent years;bargaining power;odds ratio;cultural identities;female empowerment;civil society;financial independence;local federation;private-sector organizations;community needs;rural population;community empowerment;Gender Gap;management function;grassroots institution;child labor;gender inequalities;Gender Inequality;funded component;household decision;cultural norm;development policy;civic capacity;Public Goods;fiscal management;development of literature;politically active;federal country;open access;local area;local preference;local citizen;adaptive learning;research assistance;political support;labor economist;job requirement;local teacher;previous work;individual saving;qualitative analysis;escape poverty;state responsibility;village group;unobserved characteristic;field workers;audio files;community institution;personal network;community level;empowering women;state management;socioeconomic background;worker program;total saving;health systems;research method;educational service;management strategy;financial impact;internal loan;bus stop;wage premium;informal loan;national policy;program impact;social opportunities;community activity;constitutional recognition;qualitative research;home ownership;taxable income;professional experience;income source;implementing partner;quantitative survey;gain recognition;international aid;regression model;



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Joshi,Shareen Rao,Vijayendra

Who should be at the top of bottom-up development a case study of the national rural livelihoods mission in Rajasthan, India (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 7996 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.