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Vietnam 2035 : toward prosperity, creativity, equity, and democracy (Vol. 2) : main report (English)

The year 2015 marks 70 years since Vietnam’s Declaration of Independence, 40 years since Reunification, and just short of 30 years from the launch of Doi Moi, which catapulted the nation from the ranks of the world’s poorest to one of its great development success stories. Critical ingredients of success have been visionary leaders, a sense of shared societal purpose, and a focus on the future. Starting in the late 1980s, these elements were fused with the embrace of markets and the global economy, setting the nation on the path to becoming the middle-income country that it is today. Its spectacular growth since then, one of the fastest in the world, has all but eliminated extreme deprivation and lifted tens of millions of people out of poverty. Looking forward to 2035, which will mark 60 years since its reunification, Vietnam now aspires to modernity, industrialization, and a higher quality of life. These aspirations and the supporting policy and institutional agenda stand on three pillars: balancing economic prosperity with environmental sustainability, promoting equity and social inclusion, and bolstering the state’s capacity and accountability. The rapid growth needed to achieve these aspirations will be sustained only if it stands on faster productivity growth and reflects the costs of environmental degradation. Productivity growth, in turn, will benefit from measures to enhance the competitiveness of domestic enterprises, scale up the benefits of urban agglomeration, and nurture a creative and innovation-led economy. Maintaining the record on equity and social inclusion will require lifting marginalized groups and delivering services to an aging and urbanizing middle-class society. And to fulfill the country’s aspirations, the institutions of governance will need to become modern, transparent, and fully rooted in the rule of law.


  • Author

    Cao,Sinh Viet, Demombynes,Gabriel, Kwakwa,Victoria, Mahajan,Sandeep, Shetty,Sudhir, Đam, Vũ Đức, Vinh, Bùi Quang, Van Trotsenburg,Axel

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    main report

  • Keywords

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations;ethnic minority child;urbanization;impact of climate change;private sector development specialist;Rule of Law;research and development expenditure;high quality of life;Massachusetts Institute of Technology;competition in product markets;Payments for Ecosystem Services;protection property right;labor productivity growth;global value chain;market economy;secondary school attendance;old-age dependency ratio;industrial zone;research assistance;social inclusion;national innovation system;council of science;natural resource economist;Access to Education;industrial relation system;human resource policies;human resource policy;urban population growth;decline in productivity;Center Research;private higher education;transfer of technology;sustainable development path;tertiary education system;resources and environment;centrally planned economy;carbon dioxide emission;inequality of opportunity;delivering health care;capital market development;regional power trade;Strategy for Agriculture;policy and institution;growth and development;surface air temperature;national saving rate;quality and relevance;greenhouse gas emission;per capita emission;demand for skill;asset management companies;total fertility rate;asset management company;higher education reform;quality of governance;performance of private;public enterprise sector;Universal Health Care;domestic private sector;poverty headcount rate;private property right;privileges and immunity;supply side;comparator country;state sector;unequal opportunity;pension coverage;minimum wage;health expenditure;land market;real gdp;sex ratio;domestic enterprise;urban policy;urban agglomeration;occupancy rate;Child Health;poor sanitation;high school;promoting equity;industrial cluster;baseline scenario;ethnic group;agricultural growth;Natural Resources;environmental footprint;middle class;metropolitan region;role models;staff capacity;wage employment;civil measure;spatial planning;research output;research fund;trade network;global production;capital allocation;live chat;innovation capability;inefficient producers;institutional foundation;market signal;vested interests;competition policy;focus group;delivering services;global economy;economic deprivation;domestic product;economic prosperity;environmental target;long-term investment;Population Density;investment rate;industrial wastewater;national university;industrial park;secondary city;manufacturing jobs;metropolitan area;regional economy;livability city;livable city;urbanization policy;International Trade;climate resilience;national assembly;administrative coordination;trading partner;local papers;effective teams;active engagement;academic research;international expert;urban transport;land appropriation;social assistance;good governance;business interest;preferential access;comparative assessment;voluntary groups;judicial independence;Ethnic Minorities;urban expansion;agribusiness sector;unit price;export crop;ethnic majority;high migration;intellectual disability;severe disability;employment rate;permanent registration;agglomeration economy;urban wage;water exploitation;water pollution;water use;wastewater treatment;market incentive;carbon intensity;sectoral plan;school level;regulatory certainty;private company;living standard;global population;productivity gain;scale economy;capital asset;productive use;transport equipment;global context;income growth;secure access;marginalized group;commercial purpose;sole responsibility;copyright owner;human rights;original work;environmental issue;changing attitude;inclusive growth;higher inequality;binding constraint;household poverty;income gap;agricultural land;rice production;expenditure pattern;primary care;rapid change;family farming;labor code;wildcat strike;life expectancy;road map;aquaculture production;primary source;pension spending;high frequency;empirical relationship;industrialized nation;environmental challenge;high-technology product;spatial expansion



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Cao,Sinh Viet Demombynes,Gabriel Kwakwa,Victoria Mahajan,Sandeep Shetty,Sudhir Đam, Vũ Đức Vinh, Bùi Quang Van Trotsenburg,Axel

Vietnam 2035 : toward prosperity, creativity, equity, and democracy (Vol. 2) : main report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.