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Is geography destiny : lessons from Latin America (Inglês)

The channels through which geography influences economic and social development can be studied at different levels and perspectives of time. Countries are the basic unit of observation, and some historical considerations notwithstanding, the horizon of analysis is limited to the past four or five decades. The objective is to establish to what extent geography is responsible for differences in development between countries, and more specifically between Latin America and other groups of countries. The economic and social development of Latin American countries has been and continues to be affected both by physical geography (climate and the characteristics of land and topography) and by human geography (settlement patterns of the population). The most significant channels of influence of geography are the productivity of the land, the presence of endemic diseases, natural disasters, the location of countries and their populations in relation to the coast, and the concentration of the population in urban areas. The first two chapters look backward to determine whether geography is one of the causes explaining the current development levels of Latin American countries and the regions within them. In contrast, chapter 3 looks ahead at what can be done. The answer to some geographical disadvantages can be more and better roads and communications, although some solutions may be beyond what some countries can do, especially those that are poorer because their geography is more adverse. But the range of possible solutions does not stop there. Most policy instruments that can influence the effects of geography are not new: regional or urban development policies, research and technology programs, or decentralization strategies. What is new is that these policies can better incorporate the various geographical variables that influence their effectiveness. Failure to incorporate those variables into policies translates into welfare losses for the poorest people in the Latin American countries.

Detalhes

  • Autor

    Gallup, John Luke Gaviria, Alejandro Lora, Eduardo

  • Data do documento

    2003/08/01

  • TIpo de documento

    Publicação

  • No. do relatório

    27161

  • Nº do volume

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • País

    América Latina,

  • Região

    América Latina e Caribe,

  • Data de divulgação

    2003/12/03

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Nome do documento

    Is geography destiny? : lessons from Latin America

  • Palavras-chave

    per capita income growth;per capita income level;access to the sea;child mortality rate;high population density;per capita expenditure;productivity of land;concept of race;geography and culture;area under cultivation;competitive bidding process;degree and type;development of society;location of populations;investments in infrastructure;social and institutional;world war ii;average income level;natural resource rent;risk of malaria;burden of disease;average household income;world health organization;risk of damage;crop and livestock;urban development policy;yellow fever;indigenous people;Indigenous Peoples;tropical disease;natural disaster;Social Sciences;geographical conditions;health condition;tropical highland;geographical zone;social scientist;manual labor;tropical region;tropical zone;geographical diversity;settlement pattern;highland zone;tropical environment;indigenous population;andean countries;political scientist;Endemic Disease;spatial concentration;human geography;caribbean island;dense population;vacuum chamber;ecological regions;black slavery;physical characteristic;tropical area;political science;temperate region;temperate zone;tropical plantation;seaborne trade;large-scale production;climatic circumstances;public health;african slaves;research agenda;geographical variation;colonial heritage;basic infrastructure;ecological zone;rural family;slave revolt;institutional factor;physical environment;disease burden;falciparum malaria;technological advancement;Infectious Disease;agricultural advances;sedentary population;road infrastructure;intestinal parasite;human beings;fiscal decentralization;regional policy;national studies;climate zone;predominant language;political consequence;Social Conflict;statistical information;tropical coastal;individual life;humid tropics;Ethnic Minorities;environmental consequence;nomadic group;geographical remoteness;regional variation;institutional environment;smallholder production;free labor;tropical climate;public policy;battle death;ethnic group;rebel force;acquired immunity;slave state;economic institution;slave labor;land area;geographical variable;decentralization strategy;ethnographic evidence;population distribution;economic statistic;small area;income disparity;geographical barrier;geographical disadvantage;temperate climate;indigenous community;coastal area;regional pattern;net migration;concentration index;vaccination coverage;demographic factor;geographical difference;classification system;geographical feature;economic geography;Natural Resources;safe area;social isolation;disadvantaged area;racial minority;indigenous communities;spatial distribution;land productivity;technological development;building standard;environmental sustainability;International Trade;population concentration;potential users;natural conditions;genetic predisposition;long life;biological basis;biological science;scientific effort;molecular biology;medical disciplines;genetic manipulation;premature death;political institution;policy formulation;soil quality;urbanized area;academic community;research fellow;research institutions;incentive system;journal articles;Social Mobility;grant funding;historical perspective;Economic Inequality;social outcome;social researcher;empirical application;explanatory variable;physical geography;development pattern;

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