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World development report 2015 : mind, society, and behavior (Chinês)

Every policy relies on explicit or implicit assumptions about how people make choices. Those assumptions typically rest on an idealized model of how people think, rather than an understanding of how everyday thinking actually works. This year's World Development Report argues that a more realistic account of decision-making and behavior will make development policy more effective. The report emphasizes what it calls 'the three marks of everyday thinking. In everyday thinking, people use intuition much more than careful analysis. They employ concepts and tools that prior experience in their cultural world has made familiar. And social emotions and social norms motivate much of what they do. These insights together explain the extraordinary persistence of some social practices, and rapid change in others. They also offer new targets for development policy. A richer understanding of why people save, use preventive health care, work hard, learn, and conserve energy provides a basis for innovative and inexpensive interventions. The insights reveal that poverty not only deprives people of resources but is an environment that shapes decision making, a fact that development projects across the board need to recognize. The insights show that the psychological foundations of decision making emerge at a young age and require social support. The report applies insights from modern behavioral and social sciences to development policies for addressing poverty, finance, productivity, health, children, and climate change. It demonstrates that new policy ideas based on a richer view of decision-making can yield high economic returns. These new policy targets include: 1) the choice architecture (for example, the default option; 2) the scope for social rewards; 3) frames that influence whether or not a norm is activated; 4) information in the form of rules of thumb; and 5) opportunities for experiences that change mental models or social norms. Finally, the report shows that small changes in context have large effects on behavior. As a result, discovering which interventions are most effective, and with which contexts and populations, inherently requires an experimental approach. Rigor is needed for testing the processes for delivering interventions, not just the products that are delivered.


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    World Bank

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    Relatório de Desenvolvimento Mundial

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    Regiões Mundiais,

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    World development report 2015 : mind, society, and behavior

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    mental model;impact of climate change;Translation & Interpretation;Rotating Savings and Credit;community needs;agency for international development;action on climate change;human decision;development policy;views of poor;Early Childhood Development;annual percentage rate;privileges and immunity;research support budget;nordic trust fund;anthropogenic climate change;early brain development;foreign language translation;world health organization;home water chlorination;scope of application;annual interest rate;oral rehydration salt;cash on hand;Oral rehydration therapies;conditional cash transfer;public health measures;early childhood stimulation;social network;human factor;free rider;standard economic;payday lender;human behavior;human beings;payday loan;preventive health;Social Sciences;individual decision;role models;cooperative behavior;public good;Public Goods;mental representations;behavioral effect;water consumption;city government;material incentives;communication strategy;world development;literacy program;social expectation;foreign affair;health behavior;sunk cost;free riding;social obstacle;loan product;designing intervention;government shape;social incentives;antipoverty program;widespread corruption;conservation measure;individual choice;money illusion;long-term investment;train activity;social difference;worth emphasizing;animal spirits;combat poverty;Agricultural Extension;antiretroviral therapy;developmental outcomes;earnings increase;psychological elements;disadvantaged individuals;psychological factors;non-governmental organization;human cognition;market outcome;understanding process;field experiment;quantitative research;competitive market;total saving;children's education;breakfast cereal;poor child;antipoverty policy;conceptual framework;accident rate;choice architecture;graphic designer;household debt;Antiretroviral therapies;standard variables;resource mobilization;social context;Water Shortage;consultative meeting;messaging service;hulya ulku;socioeconomic status;local populace;water use;social monitoring;behavioral model;Change Program;measurement technique;basic learning;european commission;development cooperation;application process;behavioral intervention;prison inmate;throat cancer;cognitive development;disease outbreak;resource sustainability;climate forecast;infected individuals;technology adoption;ethnic group;research show;ongoing research;extreme poverty;Agricultural Investment;savings account;health products;public recognition;open defecation;wage increase;saving rate;disease transmission;behavioral response;Economic Policy;small fee;human rights;young adult;welfare effect;food price;research group;middle-income economy;thinking process;amount due;sole responsibility;habit formation;information base;belief system;cognitive process;social identity;cognitive ability;human body;copyright owner;black box;fertilizer purchase;experimental data;intergenerational transmission;cognitive skill;social interaction;popular media;vicious cycle;social relation;behavioral economics;original work;commercial purpose;social recognition;political science;payday borrower;social meaning;individual preference;innovative policy;common sense;water conservation;cognitive science;limited information;social institution;empirical evidence;interior design;predictive power;Carried Interest;short-term loan;economic model;unsecured loan;public economics;process information;installment plan;social aspect;purchase goods;Learning and Innovation Credit;



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