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Incentives for resource allocation : a case study of Sudan (Inglês)

The paper examines the role of a wide range of policy interventions -- such as taxes and subsidies on international transactions, exchange rates, import licensing/foreign exchange allocation, export licensing and marketing schemes, domestic excise taxes and price controls -- in determining the overall incentive framework influencing the allocation of resources in Sudan in the mid-1970s. The paper concludes that the incentive framework confers widely divergent rates of effective protection to different industrial and agricultural activities; that overall the incentive framework is biased against agriculture and in favor of industry; and that it is biased in favor of import substitution and against exports. The paper concludes with a set of policy suggestions for reforming the incentive framework to be more in line with the underlying comparative advantage of the Sudanese economy.


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    Incentives for resource allocation : a case study of Sudan

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    incentive framework;foreign exchange;gum arabic;foreign exchange allocation;access to foreign exchange;raw material;retail price;incentive policy;domestic price;foreign exchange budget;rate of duty;export tax;structure of incentive;allocation of resource;allocation of land;foreign trade;nominal protection rate;export license;export marketing;export duties;domestic excise;price of capital;subsidy scheme;incentive structure;import duty exemption;price of power;Public Expenditure Policy;balance of payment;share of export;exemption from payment;market clearing price;Public Sector Units;expansion of capacity;choice of crop;foreign exchange resource;hides and skins;foreign exchange holding;category of commodities;interest rate policy;infrastructure and services;manufacturing industry;allocation of labor;tax subsidy scheme;business profit;industrial free zone;degree of specialization;agriculture and industry;agricultural producer price;increase in capital;excise tax;price control;commodity import;factor market;industrial sector;Industrial Policy;import license;industrial activity;import ban;exchange control;Industrial Policies;cropping pattern;profit rate;import tariff;import value;import tax;public entity;import requirement;equity goal;manufacturing sector;public policy;exchange tax;traded goods;annual budget;tariff structure;private hand;policy package;allocation decision;vegetable oil;price reduction;international transaction;fiscal;license procedure;distribution chain;excise taxation;maximum rate;gross output;productive sector;agricultural commodity;profit margin;export value;excise duty;factor allocation;productive activity;import substitution;price regime;policy suggestions;incentive effect;capital good;export subsidies;export subsidy;agricultural machinery;manufactured products;price movement;sudanese pound;export ban;Exchange Rates;intermediate input;customs department;Tax Exemption;industrial land;electricity rate;freight rate;local rate;border price;domestic producer;implicit tariffs;collected data;commodity market;domestic value;uniform tariff;packing material;information supply;simple average;trade share;domestic factor;national income;discretionary element;domestic industry;sales invoices;product quality;fixed asset;rational selection;profitability analysis;industrial commodity;industrial establishments;power availability;government action;basic legislation;profit opportunity;industrial enterprise;export revenue;plastic products;broad assessment;canned fruit;debt service;price formula;capacity expansion;government supply;Fixed Assets;loss-making enterprise;price structure;cumulative effect;nominal tariff;water charge;joint account;export proceeds;capital inflow;private trader;controlled price;equity share;concession company;Private Equity;invisible payment;special account;commerce sector;commodity price;wheat flour;private monopoly;commercial vehicle;cash basis;export price;export good;crop rotation;agricultural activity;local taxation;marketing arrangement;price signal;comparative advantage;wholesale market;allocative function;domestic demand;domestic supply;foreign price;canned food;relative price;annual quota;duty collection;domestic production;medicinal products;government purchase;dairy product;Capital Inflows;Trade Policies;Trade Policy;road passenger;consumer goods;budget speech;fiscal policy;meat product;specific duty;ad valorem;Fiscal policies;cumulative total;industrial units;official parity;intermediate product;import surcharges;motor spirit;budgetary constraint;licensing policy;administrative allocation;allocation policy;domestic credit;wage policy;product market;stated objective;efficiency criterion;agricultural surplus;industrial value;fiscal incentive;land allocation;explicit tax;tenant farmer;agriculture sector;Rural Sector;equity objective;production frontier;price mechanism;administrative control;trade restriction;Command economy;private enterprise;cottonseed oil;agricultural product;air conditioner



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