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Estimates of COVID-19 Impacts on Learning and Earning in Indonesia : How to Turn the Tide : Main Report (Inglês)

The authors use the World Bank’s recently developed country tool for simulating Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) impacts on learning and schooling outcomes and data from the forthcoming Indonesia education service delivery indicator survey to simulate and contextualize the potential impact of COVID-19 school closures on learning outcomes, proficiency levels, enrollments, and expected earnings for Indonesian students in primary and secondary school. The authors estimate that Indonesian children have already lost 11 points on the program for international student assessment (PISA) reading scale and United States (U.S.) 249 dollars in future annual individual earnings due to the four-month closure period from March 24 to the end of July 2020. The authors provide estimates for six- and eight-month closure scenarios, showing that these losses are expected to increase in the coming months as schools gradually re-open (and possibly re-close). To turn the tide of these human capital losses, districts, provinces, and the central ministries should prepare for both improved face-to-face instruction, as well as improved quality of distance education, in order to recapture lost learning and improve overall system quality and resilience to possible future shocks.


  • Autor

    Yarrow,Noah Bunce, Masood,Eema, Afkar,Rythia

  • Data do documento


  • TIpo de documento

    Documento de Trabalho

  • No. do relatório


  • Nº do volume


  • Total Volume(s)


  • País


  • Região

    Leste Asiático e Pacífico,

  • Data de divulgação


  • Disclosure Status


  • Nome do documento

    Main Report

  • Palavras-chave

    Teachers; school closure; access to distance learning; years of schooling; Primary and Secondary Education; primary school age child; higher level of education; effectiveness of distance learning; dropping out of school; household access to electricity; Online Learning; school day; Learning for All; Demand For Education; student per classroom; effective distance learning; distance learning material; distance learning program; household survey data; student learn outcome; social assistance program; high dropout rate; future earning potential; early warning system; children and youth; cost of access; purchasing power parity; access to internet; cohort of student; children attending schools; management of school; degree of confidence; success and failure; small group instruction; secondary education level; returns to schooling; lower quality education; human capital loss; education service delivery; Teacher Professional Development; distance learning method; adjusted estimate; budget for education; return to education; labor force participation; lower income household; primarily due; access to computer; reading score; internet connectivity; rural area; in school; student learning; opportunity cost; income shock; learning level; estimate impact; secondary student; educational television; urban school; old children; social distance; score distribution; supply side; distance instruction; village survey; low-income student; global estimate; Private School; digital device; sample household; secondary level; primary student; financial strain; emotional skill; educational technology; mobile device; school facility; school survey; primary level; lifetime earnings; income quintile; average score; annex annex; academic learning; Education Services; school year; teacher assessment; possible future; mean value; household income; primary cause; young child; economic hardship; gender discrimination; enrolment rate; school child; reading comprehension; new skill; present value; school participation; Cash Transfer; device access; remote community; practical training; Formative Assessment; tuition fee; pupil-classroom ratio; classroom library; classroom space; essential facility; working life; student dropout; new technology; school student; internet data; short stories; digital technology; individual earnings; Labor Market; equal access; administrative purposes; internet connection; Road Accidents; broadband internet; photo credit; lesson plan; natural disaster; pedagogical skill; seating arrangement; significant challenge; subject knowledge; school outcome; earning opportunity; budget allocation; income impact; school dropout; economic shock; learning inequality; socioeconomic background; creative imagination; higher fee; tertiary level; intellectual curiosity; public resource; system quality; problem-solving skill; literacy assessment; traditional schooling; public system; classroom practice; learning process; education investment; multiple actor; recorded information; survey household; temporary measure; available data; efficient investment; school infrastructure; student population; remote area; student access; baseline assumptions; political capital; national survey; old student; high-income household; educational change; Orientation Day; reduced work; separate section; applicable law; month period; manmade disaster; infection rate; emotional support; private source; parental engagement; higher grade; Green Zone; remote teacher; learning effect; external shock; decentralized system; representative sample; border area; student score; rural disadvantage; data system; learning need; day school; test score; lack electricity; Student Assessment; instructional aid; effective learning; learning modality; subsidiary right; survival rate; vulnerable group; education budget; government intervention; cost-benefit analysis



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