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Long-Term Effects of the 1923 Mass Refugee Inflow on Social Cohesion in Greece (Inglês)

After the 1919–1922 Greco-Turkish conflict, 1.2 million Greek Orthodox were forcibly displaced from Turkey to Greece, increasing the host population by 20 percent within a few months. Refugees were pro-vided with farmland, new houses and schools, and were granted the Greek citizenship. This paper analyses the long-term social integration of refugees and the effect of their resettlement on social cohesion. Combining historical and modern population censuses and surveys, this paper finds that, by the 2000s, refugees display a high rate of intermarriage with Greek natives, report levels of trust in others and in institutions similar to natives, and exhibit higher political and civic participation. At the community level, places with a higher share of refugees in 1928 are more likely to have at least one sport association 80 years later. There is no impact on political fragmentation nor on crime. The historical refugees’ integration starkly contrasts with the social marginalization of recent Albanian immigrants who, unlike the former, neither spoke Greek nor had the same religion as locals upon arrival. These results suggest that early investments in inclusion policies can be effective at fostering refugees’ assimilation, at least when newcomers and locals have similar cultural profiles.


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    Documento de trabalho sobre pesquisa de políticas

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    Long-Term Effects of the 1923 Mass Refugee Inflow on Social Cohesion in Greece

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    complete primary school; civil and political right; Research Support; access to primary schooling; integration of refugees; standard of living; resettlement of refugees; exposure to violence; customs and traditions; terms of education; access to land; principle of equality; second generation migrants; supply of school; lack of integration; country of birth; lower household income; first world war; degree of commitment; refugee protection regime; number of refugees; social cohesion; social integration; forced displacement; refugee child; refugee woman; political parties; voluntary association; community level; civic participation; young age; political party; voting patterns; religious persecution; political activism; social capital; host population; native population; arable land; Host Communities; population census; economic shock; political attitude; human capital; Refugee Resettlement; in institution; farm input; standard error; social assimilation; illegal status; educational outcome; local population; cultural assimilation; sports clubs; spatial distribution; displaced people; large estates; Labor Market; resettlement policy; political values; host society; school supply; political preference; individual preference; border area; immigrant woman; national interest; Natives; in school; agricultural work; native women; utility program; largest groups; long-term effect; agricultural settlement; population resettlement; high share; adult refugee; historical context; long-term perspective; forced migrant; educational choice; economic integration; tenure system; landless peasant; legal considerations; voluntary migrants; school-age child; urban settlement; budgetary expenditure; cultivated land; social exclusion; legal immigration; national share; political process; systematic discrimination; historical data; political power; common good; social solidarity; political machine; political allegiance; survey data; psychological trauma; refugee population; census data; conventional indicator; community ties; ethnic boundary; social condition; separate entity; cultural pattern; Immigration policy; voluntary migration; refugee family; random sample; educational gap; immigrant education; immigrant population; male literacy; life expectancy; low-skill occupation; greek language; mother tongue; open school; school-age population; adult man; government representative; social behavior; active participation; positive impact; public life; positive relationship; population size; socio-economic development; political action; old age; vacant land; community participation; coping mechanism; Coping Mechanisms; civic activity; trade union; social value; altruistic value; legal system; municipality level; population share; primary data; cultural identities; research design; new roads; personal interaction; intergroup cooperation; common goals; equal status; rural area; public redistribution; mutual trust; high diversity; ethnic diversity; immigrant children; removing barriers; lifetime earnings; agricultural colonies; estimation equation; spatial correlation; national border; railway network; Population Density; empirical analysis; public use; Forced Migration; empirical support; birth cohort; survey household; legislative election; political landscape; big city; modern history; economic hardship; new house; cultural background; resettlement program; occupied territories; military support; immediate relief; several years; national identity; destination country; limited resources; asylum country; important policy; social disruption; global knowledge; national unity; customary use; national community; Civil War; productive asset; civic values; cultivable land; integration policy; social marginal; open access; development policy



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