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Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy (Inglês)

This book is about income, inequality, and poverty during the remarkable period of collapse of Communism and the construction of capitalism in the 18 formerly socialist countries. It covers a period of almost ten years, from the time of the early Gorbachevian reforms of 1987-88 to approximately 1996. The goal of this book is to describe what happened during the transition in the 18 countries. Specifically the book examines what happened to the real incomes of the population, to the inequality with which incomes and expenditures are distributed, and to poverty. It also attempts to find out why these changes occurred. In looking ahead, the book concludes that if growth is to make a substantial dent in poverty relatively quickly, it will be necessary to stabilize income inequality at current levels. Assuming that inequality remains at current levels, and using the average growth rate of 5 percent per capita per year, poverty appears to be staying in these transition economies until well into the twenty-first century. The surveys are of uneven quality. Issues related to limitations of the data are presented at length in Appendix 1.


  • Autor

    Milanovic, Branko

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  • País




    Federação Russa,






    Europa e Ásia Central,




    República Eslovaca,




    República Checa,


  • Região

    Europa e Ásia Central,

  • Data de divulgação


  • Nome do documento

    Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy

  • Palavras-chave

    relative per capita income;concentration coefficient;relative poverty rate;market economy;household per capita income;annual per capita income;real per capita income;High Commissioner for Refugees;optimal allocation;Socialist countries;household budget survey;gross income;income and expenditure;minimum income guarantee;supply of labor;private sector income;world war i;gdp growth rate;guaranteed minimum income;second world war;data on income;concept of income;standard of living;cost of live;change in income;effect of taxes;increase in income;percentage of income;means of production;cash social transfer;families with child;return to education;current account convertibility;personal income tax;differences in results;family budget survey;destruction of property;council of europe;number of seats;disposable income;Cash Transfer;family allowance;payroll tax;transition economy;Transition economies;property income;civil strife;income source;income inequality;opposition party;Independent States;state sector;child benefit;retail trade;self-employment income;labor income;free election;private source;state ownership;political development;communist countries;Civil War;income composition;military conflict;social policy;social policies;positive correlation;convertible currency;real income;regressive transfer;direct taxation;hbs income;labor supply;democratic tradition;unemployment benefit;primary income;direct subsidy;absolute amount;wage distribution;communist party;private agriculture;parliamentary election;Direct Subsidies;baltic countries;research assistance;net wage;student demonstration;land area;consumer subsidy;standard practice;income redistribution;occupational pension;stateowned enterprises;political parties;income share;pension account;displaced person;displaced people;birth grant;household level;decentralized decision;bureaucratic interference;central planning;social dislocation;international recognition;political instability;sectoral studies;software program;rental income;asset share;democratic system;participation rate;total tax;occupational pensions;wage income;Socialist economies;south ossetia;transfer payment;personal tax;pension system;private pension;National Institutions;comparative study;democratic country;fringe benefit;average duration;tax burden;future tax;tax rate;subject matter;geographic coverage;development operation;policy formulation;copyright notice;noncommercial purposes;classroom use;consumer good;national statistical;non-governmental organization;formal sector;consumer goods;working population;international pressure;perfect targeting;household head;single-parent household;household size;public policy;armed rebellion;survey period;social group;transition countries;Child care;informal sector;pension reform;political party;deprivation function;transition country;democratic institution;output decline;pyramid scheme;family benefit;real gdp;anonymous reviewer;contested election;small fraction;target social;real wage;household income;black market;unemployment rate;social assistance;agricultural cooperative;agricultural household;free health;world output;monetary stabilization;private ownership;social cost;macroeconomic stabilization;exchange rate;manual worker;Exchange Rates;producer subsidy;total employment;social class;private rate;higher inequality;private hand;average pay;



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