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National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas (PNPM-RURAL) : indigenous peoples plan (Inglês)

National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas for Indonesian communities covered by the World Bank's policy on indigenous people can generally be classified as falling in to one of three categories. First, there are small pockets of highly isolated, vulnerable groups such as the Mentawai or other small island populations. Such groups can easily be adversely affected by development projects because of unfamiliarity with modern market mechanisms, cultural and administrative prejudices against them, or inability to retain control over productive and natural resources. A second category refers to the much larger ethnic populations which meet most of the World Bank's typological requirements (own language, sense of identity, traditional attachments) but exhibit varying degrees of vulnerability. The third group refers to heterogeneous communities, where a segment of the population is culturally or economically marginalized. Test cases specifically supervised for this purpose have included the Baduy, on Java, who as a rule reject outside development projects, and indigenous communities on the island of Nias, near West Sumatra. In both cases Kecamatan Development Project (KDP) practice proved highly adaptive. In Baduy the project did not enter until it was approached by traditional leaders and the terms of encounter negotiated and recorded by both sides. In Nias, KDP initially experienced several implementation problems because of its isolation and the deeply hierarchical village structures, but again no adverse impacts could be identified. Specific measures in the project design that appear to promote culturally appropriate activities include the villager's own election of their representatives to the project, use of sub village planning units, and flexibility in facilitator's operational funds that allows them to support traditional rituals. The project design itself has also proven to be somewhat more flexible than anticipated when it first started. Thus, in provinces such as Aceh or West Sumatra, where kin-based descent units also carry out important administrative functions, the project produced special guidelines that used these traditional units rather than the standard kecamatan and village structures.




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