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Trade policy and market access issues for developing countries : implications for the Millennium Round (Inglês)

The author analyzes 61 trade policy reviews prepared for the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, GATT - reviews that document the progress developing countries have made in integration with the world trading system over the past decade. Based on an analysis of post-Uruguay Round tariff and nontariff barriers worldwide, he then recommends developing country positions on major issues in the new round of WTO trade negotiations. His key conclusions and recommendations: 1) Agriculture. Developing countries should support the Cairns Group in its push for greater liberalization of industrial countries' agricultural trade policies; the revised Food Aid Convention is not a substitute for but a complement to worldwide liberalization of agriculture. 2) Manufactures. The existence of tariff peaks and escalation in industrial country markets and the limited bindings at relatively high levels of developing country tariffs on manufactures present opportunities for negotiations with good prospects for shared and balanced benefits. The remaining nontariff barriers in industrial countries that affect manufactures are concentrated in textiles and clothing. Developing countries should ensure that industrial countries implement their commitments to liberalize this sector and impose no new nontariff barriers in this or other sectors under the guise of other rules or arrangements. The remaining nontariff barriers in developing countries should be converted into tariffs and reduced over time as part of the negotiations. 3) Antidumping. The increased use of antidumping measures by high- and middle-income developing countries in recent periods offers an opportunity for balanced negotiations to restrict their use. Reduced use of antidumping measures would increase efficiency and benefit consumers in all countries. But it is unclear whether a supportive climate for such negotiations exists in either industrial or developing countries.


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    Documento de trabalho sobre pesquisa de políticas

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    Trade policy and market access issues for developing countries : implications for the Millennium Round

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    market access issues;per capita income level;Technical Barriers to Trade;expansion of world trade;Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures;development research group;applied tariff;multilateral trading system;income developing country;policy and institution;export subsidy reduction;international trading system;coefficient of variation;applied tariff rates;share of trade;gatt contracting parties;growth in trade;food security problem;average tariff rate;foreign direct investment;preferential trade arrangement;trade policy review;world merchandise export;trade in goods;agriculture and service;market access conditions;indicators of access;world trading system;agricultural trade policy;liberalization of agriculture;lack of transparency;trade remedy measures;foreign market access;technical assistance efforts;tariff schedule;Trade Policies;tariff line;raw material;simple average;bound tariff;industrial country;trade regime;world economy;trade performance;product category;trade negotiation;International Trade;export subsidies;total trade;protective effect;standard deviation;nontariff barrier;agricultural product;tariff peaks;trading partner;license procedure;domestic producer;tariff quota;small economy;tariff escalation;domestic processing;agricultural tariff;measure of use;anti-dumping actions;international environment;international community;quantitative restriction;antidumping measures;import license;minimum price;tariff protection;import regime;tariff binding;protectionist pressure;trade value;nontariff measure;sovereign states;expanding trade;government intervention;administered price;protective measure;excise tax;relative frequency;pervasive poverty;manufactured products;export industry;regional pattern;tariff exemption;world price;charitable organization;foreign supplier;application provisions;import prohibition;preferential rate;regional breakdown;duty exemptions;free importation;import licence;indicator value;capital good;intermediate product;world exports;external environment;previous draft;alternative instruments;information base;aggregate indicator;multilateral system;systematic analysis;increasing integration;high trade;export growth;authoritative information;merchandise import;limited resources;asian crisis;liberal trade;customs administration;global environment;multilateral approach;integration effort;domestic institution;export earnings;mutual reduction;agricultural production;international market;clothing sector;food aid;food import;manufacturing export;domestic input;implicit protection;primary product;agricultural commodity;safeguard action;anti-dumping agreement;rent seeking;multilateral round;agricultural sector;agriculture sector;licensing arrangement;Exchange Rates;tariff level;Macroeconomic Policy;domestic subsidy;public health;



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