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Inequality and poverty in Malaysia : measurement and decomposition (Inglês)

This report gives a perspective on Malaysia, by tracing the development and importance of ethnic pluralism in the country. This pluralism has led the government to show special concern for racial income, distribution and, more generally, for racial economic disparities. The income distribution data used in this study were collected through the Post-Enumeration Survey (PES) of 1970. A comparison shows that the PES is the best source of income data to date on household and individual incomes in Malaysia. The broad features of the PES household income distribution show overall inequality in Malaysia to be fairly high. The individual income distributions show large inequalities within the racial groups. These suggest that racial income disparities may be only part of a much wider problem of income inequality in the country. A profile of poverty in Malaysia is constructed, which identifies the poor in terms of socioeconomic variables such as race, location, employment status, occupation, and education. Such information is useful not only in understanding better the correlates and circumstances of poverty, but also in identifying areas of government intervention for the redress of poverty. The reports concludes if there are no data on the distribution of physical wealth among individuals in Malaysia, the breakdown of the personal income distribution by employment status does shed some light on the distribution of capital assets.


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    Anand, Sudhir

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    Leste Asiático e Pacífico,

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    Inequality and poverty in Malaysia : measurement and decomposition

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    measurement of income inequality;comparisons of income inequality;eradication of poverty;personal income;individual income;measurement of poverty;output per worker;extent of poverty;distribution of household;racial group;average income level;ethnic basis;quality of data;difference in income;financing budget deficits;pattern of ownership;balance of payment;public sector revenue;share of equity;commitment to poverty;absolute growth rate;average household income;rate of employment;movement of labor;retail price index;improvement in productivity;estimates of poverty;composition of employment;index of inequality;gross national product;decomposition of inequality;gnp per capita;palm oil production;world war ii;law of nature;terms of trade;nature of poverty;state of emergency;transfer power;irrigation and drainage;analysis of poverty;racial composition;tin mine;national unity;poverty eradication;Indigenous Peoples;Rural Sector;share capital;modern sector;equity capital;urban sector;employment opportunity;corporate asset;employment opportunities;racial balance;racial harmony;natural rubber;foreign interest;fixed asset;Fixed Assets;statutory bodies;world demand;ruling party;modern agriculture;timber extraction;primary data;public corporation;modern economy;corporate ownership;full employment;indian population;consumer good;political structure;consumer goods;eradicating poverty;income data;physical infrastructure;foreign share;ethnic pluralism;industrial sector;cash crop;poverty gap;large-scale migration;academic research;sectoral employment;coffee plantation;legitimate rights;political situation;real income;heavily dependent;occupational category;saving rate;employment growth;government ownership;property development;small island;rural area;industrial activity;controlled company;industrial asset;corporate sector;common citizenship;foreign investor;smallholder agriculture;urban activity;political status;agricultural sector;equity share;Population Growth;raising income;industrial community;general elections;individual ownership;opposition party;state assemblies;market price;government staff;social contract;political sentiment;political arena;preferential access;religious overtones;diplomatic service;sample design;citizenship right;national account;political activities;income differential;smaller share;economic welfare;government intervention;private investment;financial resource;external resource;tax system;Economic Management;marginal savings;national saving;domestic investment;private saving;import capacity;public deficit;taxation efforts;government revenue;expenditure target;administrative constraint;inadequate capacity;preferential hiring;university graduate;primary product;export earnings;foreign trade;national income;statistical data;rice production;net importer;rubber prices;subject matter;total employment;domestic production;domestic output;merchandise export;land resource;land resources;high concentration;primary commodity;survey data;research assistance;computer program;inequality measure;retrieval system;index base;poverty profile;commercial crop;population level;internal consistency;geographical concentration;colonial policy;rubber estates;urban population;employment structure;estate agriculture;smallholder sector;social customs;colonial rule;coastal city;financial policies;manufacturing sector;traditional products;domestic manufacturer;import tariff;investment incentive;import substitution;manufactured goods;Public Utilities;price stability;entrepôt trade;private initiative;foreign exchange;external reserve;monetary management;gini coefficient;socioeconomic variables;empirical work;conceptual issue;comparative study;policy question;racial integration;colonial administration;political party;political parties;social compact;national language;income class;inequitable distribution;trucking operation;working class;racial disparity;political representation;size distribution;relative poverty;proportional representation



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