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GEM country brief - Afghanistan 2007 (Inglês)

The Gender Entrepreneurship Markets (GEM) country brief series is intended to provide an overview on the status of women entrepreneurship in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Female labor force participation in Afghanistan is among the lowest in the South Asia at 35.8 percent. Women are mostly confined to the informal sectors in particular agriculture. Since Afghanistan is traditionally an agrarian economy, agricultural production is largely a household activity with women and children undertaking important roles alongside men in crop production, horticulture, and the rearing of livestock. According to a senior advisor in the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 65 percent of the agricultural workforce comprises of women. Female labor force activity in the formal economy has largely been confined to the health and education sectors. However, despite their presence in these sectors, women continue to be a minority in the formal economy of the country. The report notes that an estimated 40 percent of all basic health facilities lack female staff, limiting women's access to good health care. Anecdotal evidence suggests female labor force participation in the formal sector to be low due to low levels of skills, with a female literacy rate of 18 percent compared to 50 percent for men.However, women's socio-economic status determines the type of work they do, with the poorest women engaged in manual agricultural labor, and the more well-off engaged in sedentary, home-based activities. The women who are generally involved in reconstruction and development activities mostly belong to families of returning immigrants in urban areas.


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    GEM country brief - Afghanistan 2007

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    Foundation for International Community Assistance;Microfinance Investment Support Facility for Afghanistan;small and medium enterprise;access network;skill need;access to training opportunities;female labor force participation;access to network;woman entrepreneur;financial market development;micro credit program;access to finance;access to collateral;international development agency;regional technical assistance;female literacy rate;growth and development;capacity of woman;status of woman;public works program;business plan development;entrepreneurship training;private sector job;public policy advocacy;female unemployment rate;women in business;civil society activity;anecdotal evidence;female entrepreneur;Female Entrepreneurship;international market;agricultural market;female teacher;cultural norm;human rights;entrepreneurial training;Advisory services;business environment;formal economy;business opportunity;public sphere;business resource;war countries;traditional sector;urban economy;financial intermediaries;female empowerment;household income;public asset;vocational skill;international fairs;Regional Studies;microfinance institution;resource guide;Gender Equality;target market;professional skill;female access;care international;gender dimension;gender barrier;inheritance right;priority region;publicprivate partnerships;potential contribution;agricultural production;social tradition;teaching profession;post conflict;international demand;educational opportunity;working condition;female trainers;enhancing women;economic security;micro enterprise;business network;informal sector;employment opportunity;employment opportunities;women beneficiary;microfinance program;security situation;financing option;export opportunity;export opportunities;fair price;health facility;active participant;agricultural workforce;food retail;crop production;productive asset;legal right;gender entrepreneurship;agricultural labor;socio-economic status;good health;female staff;geographical disparity;male relative;daily wage;female education;female employment;entrepreneurial activity;Informal Economy;Technical Training;donor activities;microfinance loan;community bank;village bank;european commission;market linkage;solar lamps;women entrepreneurship;micro loan;fair trade;international network;economic law;



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