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Vintage technologies and skill constraints : evidence from U.S. exports of new and used machines (Inglês)

When countries import production machinery, they must choose between new and used equipment. This article looks at that choice in the presence of labor-saving technical progress and complementarity between technologies and skills within the firm. It develops a theoretical model of the market for used machines. It then analyzes data on United States (U.S.) exports of metalworking machine tools by country of destination, classifying machines according to their vintage and their technological characteristics. The data show that the share of used equipment imported is higher if the importing country has a lower level of development, as measured by income per capita. Econometric estimation of the determinants of this share shows that it also is higher the greater is the technological change embodied in the machine or the greater is the change in the skills required to run the machine efficiently. These results indicate that technological factors and skill constraints may be as important as factor prices in determining the choice of technique in developing countries. The policy recommendation emerging from this work avoid constraints on imports of used equipment is similar to that in the existing literature. But the reasoning is different. Instead of emphasizing inappropriate capital-labor ratios for low-wage countries, the results indicate that investment in advanced technologies is effective only if importing countries have the skills to use them.


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    Navaretti, Giorgio Barba; Soloaga, Isidro; Takac

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    Estados Unidos,

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    Restante do Mundo,

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    Vintage technologies and skill constraints : evidence from U.S. exports of new and used machines

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    international financial statistic;skill need;output per worker;country of destination;learning by doing;choice of technique;cost of capital;share of import;loss in productivity;real interest rate;requirement use;restrictions on imports;choice of technology;lack of skill;interest rate raise;role of technology;types of vehicle;requirement of use;transfer of knowledge;Conference on Development;gross domestic product;pattern of trade;international trade theory;share of capital;trade policy instrument;demand function;labor productivity;technological change;equilibrium quantity;machine tool;domestic supply;Learning and Innovation Credit;Trade Policies;relative price;tariff rate;absorptive capacity;skill requirement;human capital;labor input;export data;factor price;commodity classification;equilibrium price;high tariff;technological gap;relative increase;technological progress;production function;standard error;education variable;industrial country;domestic demand;secondhand goods;technological sophistication;Political Economy;technological capability;license requirement;metalworking machinery;labor regulation;depreciation rate;international economics;world price;technological factors;informal sector;education level;technology variable;foreign supply;high wage;price differential;market price;credit rationing;export product;Technical Training;tariff import;incomplete data;nontariff barrier;high-tech equipment;price taker;tariff level;labor-intensive technique;Technology Transfer;tariff increase;high capital;direct credit;annual wage;production capacity;idle time;domestic price;ad valorem;Economic Studies;quantity demand;trade restriction;firm capacity;investment environment;economic study;horizontal distance;system dynamics;steady state;market structure;data type;library system;Transition economies;foreign trade;Capital Investments;imperfect substitute;elastic supply;technological development;transition economy;optimal scale;capital stock;price decline;theoretical model;econometric estimation;consumer demand;net importer;capital-labor ratio;advanced technology;import ban;import restriction;e-mail address;equal increase;labor-intensive production;domestic industry;production technique;dumping ground;capital good;technological frontier;obsolete technology;production process;technological knowledge;educational level;weighted average;old machinery;econometric analysis;empirical support;high ratio;wage structure;work schedule;labor intensity;managerial skill;skilled craftspeople;minimum level;unskilled worker;aging process;consumer preference;import increase;upward shift;net effect;electronic technicians;automotive industry;average price;durable good;cultural change;textile industry;disturbance term;rental rate;estimation method;trade flow;trade datum;asymmetric information;industrial statistic;technology strategy;



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