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The World Bank : its first half century : History (Inglês)

Some see the twentieth century as roughly divided in the middle. They see the first half as an era of imperialism, economic fluctuation and collapse, and massive global violence; the second half as a period of less trauma. Although the latter has been replete with searing regional wars and harsh rivalry between the cold war's Western and Eastern blocs, broad-scale peace has been preserved. Vast nations have become independent, and, despite gross, sometimes worsening, inequalities, average real incomes, health, life spans, and levels of schooling have risen in much of the world, including many of the poor countries of Latin America. Asia, and Arica, collectively referred to as 'the third world,' during the decades of East West rivalry. It is in this world that governments have tried to engineer development. Those intervening have included not only governments of the areas themselves but also external states acting through their own bilateral agencies and various multilateral institutions that governments have jointly sponsored and partly owned. The formation of such multilaterals surged after Second World War, and many of those created, whether or not beleaguered, have endured. The present work is about one of the postwar multilaterals that started quietly but that by the 1990s (whatever its future) had become one of the strongest of the group: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly known as the World Bank. To facilitate the telling of the Bank's story, it is useful to identify the defining characteristics that will resonate during the Bank's first half century, shaping the experience throughout and in some instances changing it considerably.


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    Kapur,Devesh, Lewis, John P., Webb,Richard C.

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    Regiões Mundiais,

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    flows of financial resources;united nations general assembly;project lending;regional development bank;private financial market;Oil and Gas;panel of expert;private capital market;national income accounting;Oil & Gas;private capital flow;public financial institution;average real income;public sector institution;soft budget constraint;balance of power;balance of payment;deadline for submission;division of labor;multilateral development bank;structural adjustment lending;international exchange rate;international development community;Borrowing Countries;Paid-In Capital;executive board;debt crisis;cold war;subject matter;multilateral institution;large shareholder;foreign policy;multilateral program;public policy;general development;aaa rating;bilateral aid;external affairs;minimum requirement;development lending;outstanding obligation;civil engineering;commercial bank;mortgage financing;internal management;concessional aid;callable capital;geographic region;traumatic episode;physical infrastructure;bilateral agency;commonly known;administrative management;public affair;private resources;personnel data;life span;capital stock;rail transport;urban development;Electric Power;physical asset;powerful countries;war damage;research program;intellectual freedom;national budget;sector adjustment;net lending;national guarantee;lending institution;General Administration;sovereign borrower;financial community;private lender;Social Sciences;investigative reporting;financial input;nonpartisan research;research method;financial stake;regional experience;colonial regime;sector specialist;financial turbulence;short term consultant;private institution;political purpose;investment banker;work force;international affair;national policy;multilateral agency;government guarantee;private money;advanced country;comparative advantage;development policy;research community;broad curriculum;program loans;external lender;capital transfer;private enterprise;freedom from;institution need;executive branch;water dispute;research activities;research activity;capital asset;lending decision;political skill;management discretion;resource transfer;transfer volume;global condition;international economy;joint product;resource flow;credit boom;



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