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Gender Analysis of the Cambodian Labor Market (Inglês)

This paper has six sections. The authors begin with an overview of the gender-specific trends in labor force participation, industry employment shares, overall shifts in wage employment, and gender gaps in wages and educational attainment in Cambodia. The authors continue with an industry-specific look at wage employment trends, which confirms that, while there are a few emerging higher-skilled sectors such as financial services, the manufacturing sector (and the garment sector in particular) still dominates and continues to grow in importance for women’s wage work. The authors then shed light on the vertical occupational segregation patterns within industry and show that even if women are not underrepresented in manager positions in the dominant manufacturing (garment) sector, this type of positions represent less than one percent of all manufacturing jobs. In fact, at present the only sector providing prospects for career growth beyond low-skilled work is the services industry, where women are underrepresented as managers, but overrepresented as professionals and clerical workers. Moving on to wages, we test whether the gender wage gap and the factors contributing to it differ by industry. Occupational levels and education seem to play a role in explaining only a fraction of the wage gaps in construction and agriculture respectively, while the gender gap in trade remains completely unexplained by observable characteristics. What is of even greater interest is the fact that there is no gender wage gap in manufacturing, while the gap in services appears only after controlling for education and occupational level. Importantly, in all sectors other than manufacturing, women with identical characteristics and similar occupations still earn significantly less than men. The authors also explore the extent to which motherhood explains women’s labor force experiences. The presence of young children in the household do not seem to explain the gap in wages. Nevertheless, we show that they significantly increase the probability that a woman will transition to non-wage employment, likely due to the need to combine household duties, childcare and work. Inspired by literature in similar country contexts, authors then demonstrate that the sizeable expansion of job opportunities for women in the garment sector has likely had a disproportionately negative influence on Cambodian girls’ retention beyond primary schooling (compared to boys), thus limiting their employment and wage opportunities. Because of the continued role that non-wage employment plays in women’s occupational paths, authors finish the paper with an overview of the trends in the sector, with a focus on non-farm enterprises, which appear to be slowly taking over agriculture.

Detalhes

  • Autor

    Gavalyugova,Dimitria Kostadinova, Cunningham,Wendy

  • Data do documento

    2020/07/06

  • TIpo de documento

    Report

  • No. do relatório

    150643

  • Nº do volume

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • País

    Mekong,

    Leste Asiático e Pacífico,

  • Região

    Leste Asiático e Pacífico,

  • Data de divulgação

    2020/07/07

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Nome do documento

    Gender Analysis of the Cambodian Labor Market

  • Palavras-chave

    gender wage gap; labor force participation rate; complete primary school; high rates of employment; female labor force participation; lower level of education; gender gap in education; industry employment share; upper secondary education; share of woman; trade and services; returns to schooling; distribution of wage; distribution of occupations; gross enrollment rate; women with education; years of schooling; labor force experiences; cash transfer program; low unemployment rate; secondary school equivalency; retention in education; number of workers; access to training; difference in wages; access to loan; child care options; women in education; lower secondary schooling; number of jobs; unpaid family worker; share of wage; female labor supply; share of trade; half of work; achieving gender equality; consumer electronics sector; wage employment; Labor Market; manufacturing sector; wage work; primary schooling; marital status; Financial Sector; vulnerable employment; total employment; fixed effect; household enterprise; in school; female student; statistical significance; younger cohort; gender parity; earnings estimate; retail trade; wage increase; rural woman; female entrepreneur; wage growth; wage distribution; young child; high share; garment factories; demographic variables; manufacturing jobs; hourly earnings; rural man; agricultural sector; construction services; urban woman; point estimate; confidence interval; household composition; career choice; first child; education variable; gender norm; skilled job; urban zone; high wage; school dropout; demographic characteristic; standard error; household size; children of ages; working woman; Labor Law; agricultural employment; school attendance; monthly payment; nominal wage; inflation rate; wage decline; average wage; Higher Education; trade sector; statistical term; gender segregation; hourly wage; gender imbalance; external factor; digital technology; skilled labor; mathematics education; gender perspective; gender analysis; conditional transfer; Political Economy; wage structure; private administration; male wage; export strategies; gender lens; export sector; vertical line; female professionals; role models; work environment; female managers; social change; career opportunity; safe transport; occupational opportunity; independent variable; glass ceiling; paying job; microfinance institution; woman entrepreneur; average revenue; average profit; statistical relationship; average age; retail sale; repair service; gender division; school choice; university education; negative effect; financial return; start school; time t; educational outcome; agricultural jobs; factory location; educational trend; robustness check; regression equation; population data; young people; job market; alternative specification; career ladder; young woman; economic empowerment; agricultural wage; section show; qualitative data; broad agreement; career option; employment option; labor economics; observable variable; family formation; preschool facility; earnings increase; informal business; young men; low wage; retention rates; age range; global standard; apparel sector; agricultural price; domestic investment; rural area; university degree; male employment; daily earnings; wage inequality; occupational profile; cross-country comparison; female workers; positive correlation; family farm; point gap; construction sector; employment gap; value chain; equal access; job opportunities; financial service; occupational segregation; clerical worker; gender dynamic; hospitality sector; representative household; job opportunity; female population; age category; food manufacturing; Agriculture

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