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The economics of afforestation : a case study in Africa (Inglês)

In large areas of developing countries the loss of trees is causing erosion and degradation of the soil, posing severe problems for economic development. By translating the ecological benefits of afforestation into economic terms, the author demonstrates how investments that benefit the environment often benefit the economy as well. Both the traditional work of the forestry services and tree plantings by farmers are needed, says the author, if deforestation is to be halted and reversed. With special refrence to Africa, he discusses the underlying reasons for deforestation, suggests policy changes to promote the planting and care of trees, and identifies issues for social and scientific research. A case study of the arid zone of northern Nigeria illustrates the benefits that could be brought about by establishing windbreaks and encouraging farmers to plant trees. Besides preventing soil erosion, improving soil fertility, and thus increasing crop prodution, trees provide fruit, livestock fodder, and much-needed fuelwood and building materials. The author compares the increase in farm incomes as a result of an afforestation program with the decrease in incomes if deforestation and soil erosion were to continue. The analysis will be of special interest to those concerned with agriculture, forestry, rural development, and environmental issues in developing countries.


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    The economics of afforestation : a case study in Africa

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    farm forestry;loss of soil fertility;national research council;Present Value of Benefits;Operational Core Curriculum;Economic Rate of Retum;tragedy of the commons;deforestation;farmer;crop and livestock;land clearing;public expenditure program;rates of return;population growth rate;net present value;per capita income;loss of nutrient;growth in agriculture;farm management practice;arid zone;surface wind velocity;generation of electricity;rate of consumption;rate of change;incentives for investment;quality and quantity;communal tenure system;tropical rain forest;land for agriculture;removal of trees;harvest of trees;return on investment;annual average rainfall;lack of incentive;farm forestry development;agricultural extension program;average annual rainfall;forestry research center;demand for wood;land use practice;construction of dam;rural extension service;stand of trees;conservator of forest;public policy good;implementation of law;abundant natural resource;agricultural land clearing;tree planting;consumption rate;fuelwood consumption;farm family;rural area;farming area;arable land;budgetary cost;commercial fuel;crop yield;forest reserve;farm boundaries;private investment;farm income;moisture content;annual increment;ecological problems;Natural Resources;field trip;rainy season;commercial energy;inferior good;reference material;conversion factor;ecological effect;ecological benefits;semiarid zone;financial risk;tree cover;dry year;Land tenure;empirical evidence;soil erosion;ecological damage;livestock population;survival rate;crop residue;commercial logging;forestry program;wood production;benefit stream;young trees;soil moisture;external costs;budgetary allocation;Institutional Services;forestry law;discount rate;ecological cost;building material;fuelwood plantations;Learning and Innovation Credit;



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