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China 2020 : development challenges in the new century (Inglês)

For China, swift growth and structural change, while resolving many problems, have created new challenges: employment insecurity, growing inequality, stubborn poverty, mounting environmental pressures, and periods of macroeconomic instability stemming from incomplete reforms. This report argues that China has the capacity to meet these challenges and sustain rapid growth, because it has relative stability, a remarkably high savings rate, a strong track record of pragmatic reforms, a supportive Chinese diaspora, and a growing administrative capacity. These strengths can provide a platform for additional reforms needing to occur in three major areas: First, market forces must be encouraged, especially through the reform of state enterprises, the financial system, grain and labor markets, and natural resources pricing. Second, the government must begin serving markets by building the legal, social, physical, and institutional infrastructure needed for their rapid growth. Finally, integration with the world economy must be deepened by lowering import barriers, increasing the transparency and predictability of the trade regime, and gradually integrating with international financial markets. Chapter 2 enunciates the report's twin concerns -the pace and sustainability of China's growth- and examines China's growth potential over the long term using a simple model of growth and structural change. Chapter 3 argues that further separating the roles of governments and markets and clarifying rights and responsibilities will help lay the foundations for sustained rapid growth and improve the quality of people's lives. Chapter 4 examines the five areas where government action is needed to manage the risks to the population that accompany societal change, including: raising living standards for the absolute poor; providing financial security for the elderly, and access to affordable health care; removing bias against women; and reducing high and prolonged unemployment. Chapter 5 compares the two routes China could take in giving agriculture high priority: obtaining grain self-sufficiency or using trade in agricultural products as a disciplinary device to encourage efficient domestic production. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 focus respectively on protecting the environment, integrating with the world economy, and ultimately fashioning the appropriate political vision to chart China's course into the year 2020.


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    Relatório Econômico ou Setorial Pré-2003

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    Leste Asiático e Pacífico,

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    China 2020 : development challenges in the new century

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    state enterprises;State Economic and Trade Commission;accumulation of factors of production;per capita income;secondary school enrollment rate;urban cost of living;corporate income tax rate;social rate of return;total factor productivity growth;public expenditure;purchasing power parity;personal income tax;value added tax;Rule of Law;foreign direct investment;gdp growth rate;saving rate;Rural Industry;private economic activity;capital stock growth;feminization of agriculture;conflicts of interest;world war ii;agricultural labor force;quality and quantity;boost to growth;labor market institution;Boosting Growth;performance of state;effects of competition;gnp per capita;weighted average price;human capital stock;cross-country growth regression;economics of transition;computerized information system;population growth rate;open door policy;department of economics;socialist market economy;foreign exchange receipts;foreign exchange transaction;Exchange rate policies;exchange rate policy;rate of investment;foreign exchange crisis;Foreign Exchange Reserve;tariff import;tariff on import;decentralization of authority;production of cotton;academy of science;newly industrializing economy;weights and measure;types of taxation;social security contribution;per capita expenditure;government's policy objectives;return on asset;provincial government expenditure;labor force growth;role of state;per capita consumption;Water and Energy;development of market;decentralization of management;policy and institution;modern enterprise system;growth and development;state industrial enterprise;state banking system;decline in revenue;share of profit;central government agency;rapid export growth;iron rice bowl;free trade zone;efficiency gain;government revenue;official statistic;commercial bank;rural enterprise;market price;rural income;budgetary revenue;fiscal institution;surplus labor;economic zone;capital formation;government support;essential services;foreign investor;budget deficit;management responsibility;poverty alleviation;agricultural production;social program;capital accumulation;total employment;rural area;financial system;rural industrialization;capital spending;tax collection;technological gap;long-term growth;alternative scenarios;Financial Sector;industrial growth;world economy;living standard;income insecurity;foreign enterprise;food self-sufficiency;Tax Administration;social stability;domestic production;government investment;enterprise account;coastal city;Exchange Rates;grain yield;arable land;railroad freight;fault line;grain imports;economic relation;capital input;market reform;residual component;planned economy;financial security;regional dimension;business cycle;international environment;provincial economy;driving force;agricultural output;industrial expansion;budgetary difficulty;direct financing;budgetary spending;liberalized market;fiscal pressure;institutional infrastructure;investment finance;incremental revenues;Macroeconomic Stability;payroll contribution;social insurance;central planning;labor intensity;open market;taxpayer resistance;Public Goods;intense competition;extrabudgetary fund;tax base;government industrial;banking reform;housing benefit;redundancy payment;economic mainstream;economic reform;provincial authority;pollution levy;intergovernmental grant;transfer resource;social policy;eliminating poverty;price reform;trade regime;budget formulation;government resource;equal access;basic pension;allocative efficiency;production decision;marketing information;reform effort;Public Services;income economy;monetary economics;presumptive taxation;tax measure;transfer revenues;increased investment;Tax Services;fiscal transfer;budgetary expenditure;additional revenue;tax revenue;social policies;study estimate;sample survey;free port;development zone;pricing system;urban policy;standard error;average investment;subsequent growth;physical environment;legal system;simple model;real income;quantifiable targets;asian tigers



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