Skip to Main Navigation

Increasing the efficiency of heating systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (Russo)

This report examines the following questions: Which factors determine the choice of the economically preferred heating options from a set of alternatives? Under which circumstances is DH, decentralized heating with natural gas, or another alternative the preferred option? How does the institutional environment have to change in order to foster cost-effective heat supply and demand? How can the preferred option be implemented when the countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU) are in a period of transition? To answer these questions, case studies of heat generation and delivery were carried out in 1996 in six CEE/FSU cities located in the Ukraine, Lithuania, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland. In all six cities, DH is the dominant technology for supplying heat. This report summarizes the main findings from the case studies and provides details on the major issues encountered in modernizing DH systems, the commercialization of companies in the heating sector, and requirements for policy changes. It provides examples of best practices in the reform efforts in CEE/FSU and of investments designed to make heating more efficient.


  • Autor

    Meyer, Anke, Mostert, Wolfgang

  • Data do documento


  • TIpo de documento

    Documento do Programa de Assistência à Gestão do Setor de Energia (ESMAP)

  • No. do relatório


  • Nº do volume


  • Total Volume(s)


  • País



    Federação Russa,




  • Região

    Europa e Ásia Central,

  • Data de divulgação


  • Disclosure Status


  • Nome do documento

    Increasing the efficiency of heating systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

  • Palavras-chave

    environmental efficiency;heat supply;heating sector;Combined Heat and Power;marginal cost of electricity;natural gas distribution system;private participation in infrastructure;cost of power production;cogeneration of heat;electricity production cost;natural gas distribution company;heating system;district heating system;energy efficiency measure;heat load density;source of funding;source heat;cost of heat;generation of power;domestic hot water;transmission and distribution;cost of transport;lack of finance;production of heat;cost of gas;long gestation period;nuclear power plant;rehabilitation of buildings;natural gas resource;energy price subsidy;payment to household;level of fuel;quality of supply;technologies for heat;energy efficiency investment;national energy policy;peak load duration;heat distribution network;district heating company;cost of supply;gas distribution utilities;joint stock company;district heating plant;energy cost;quality and quantity;cost of coal;benefits of cogeneration;sustainable energy practice;environmental policy consideration;light fuel oil;natural gas use;independent power producer;sustainable energy development;gas distribution network;high heat demand;natural gas system;aggregate energy consumption;investment in rehabilitation;access to financing;rates of return;high heating value;heavy fuel oil;natural gas infrastructure;Energy Sector Reform;promotion of competition;cost of production;provision of gas;price of power;technical assistance program;united nations agency;net present value;energy sector assessment;alternative heat;heat generation;municipal heating;heat source;environmental cost;Power Generation;institutional environment;efficient system;present study;cogeneration plant;building sector;household income;heat service;tariff reform;sector restructuring;competitive basis;primary energy;account payable;fuel import;account receivable;waste heat;maximum benefit;energy service;commercial sector;global energy;financial barrier;financial discipline;commercial building;cogeneration facility;cogeneration technology;reform effort;industrial purpose;distribution cost;investment design;process heat;interfuel substitution;sunk cost;transition period;rehabilitation investment;electricity output;financial mean;decentralized system;secondary distribution;commercial efficiency;gas appliance;power company;heat sector;supply side;investment requirement;energy waste;urban resident;national power;municipal budget;transitional requirements;national privatization;fuel saving;copyright notice;environmental problem;surplus capacity;steam supply;power system;increase tariff;tax burden;heating oil;accelerated depreciation;large population;low-income family;pipe diameter;housing cooperative;solid fuel;energy balance;heat value;organizational structure;cooperative effort;transition country;cost-effective solution;Investment strategies;private donor;market analysis;noncommercial purposes;potential investor;tariff structure;competitive disadvantage;electricity consumer;environmental valuation;public planning;cost allocation;information supply;specific issue;organizational restructuring;gas grid;targeted subsidy;efficiency standard;institutional aspect;long-term investment;scarce resource;regulatory action;organizational reform;fiscal measure;international financing;annex annex;retail price;cost escalation;export price;investment need;plant level;political interference;oil shock;energy tariff;pricing reform;institutional obstacles;building owners;heating season;average consumer;municipal politic;energy economies;preferential access;comparative cost;boiler operation;investment level;commercial basis;power output;business decision;low-income consumer;central planning;local factors;energy planner;electricity sector;commercial entity;urban settlement;household level;heat transmission;generic problem;bilateral agency;distribution loss;living condition;subsidy payment;Transition economies;commercial loan



Versão oficial do documento (pode conter assinaturas, etc.)

  • PDF oficial
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *A versão do texto é um OCR incorreto e está incluído unicamente em benefício de usuários com conectividade lenta.