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Improving women's agricultural productivity as farmers and workers (Inglês)

An overview of the role women play in agriculture is useful when devising strategies to increase female income and productivity. Part I of this paper presents evidence on the importance of women in the rural economy using cross-country statistics and rural household studies. Findings from time allocation studies are used to identify policy variables that might increase women's participation in more productive activities. Part II explores gender-specific barriers and constraints, especially differential access or control of productive resources and the social and institutional factors contributing to such differences. Part III analyzes gender differences in agricultural productivity more rigorously, using evidence from econometric studies. These studies examine how different levels of education, land and other inputs affect technical efficiency, labor productivity, earnings and the adoption of technology. They also point to ways whereby productivity gaps may be remedied through the provision of key services, such as extension and education. Part IV examines how agricultural policies may affect women differently than men. Part V reviews how specific barriers faced by women have been addressed in Bank agricultural projects and suggests guidelines for the design of future Bank projects.




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