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Where to create jobs to reduce poverty : cities or towns (Inglês)

Should public investment be targeted to big cities or to small towns, if the objective is to minimize national poverty? To answer this policy question, this paper extends the basic Todaro-type model of rural-urban migration to the case of migration from rural areas to two potential destinations, secondary town and big city. The analysis first derives the labor income, migration cost and poverty line conditions under which a poverty gradient from rural to town to city will exist as an equilibrium phenomenon. Then sufficient statistics are developed for the policy decisions based on these parameters. The empirical remit of the model is illustrated with long-running panel data from Kagera, Tanzania. Further, the paper shows that the structure of the sufficient statistics is maintained in the case where the model is generalized to introduce heterogeneous workers and jobs.


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    Christiaensen,Luc, De Weerdt,Joachim, Kanbur,Ravi

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    Documento de trabalho sobre pesquisa de políticas

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    Where to create jobs to reduce poverty : cities or towns ?

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    model of labor migration;poverty head count;degree of risk aversion;national income distribution;cost of migration;family and friends;number of jobs;national poverty line;difference in income;panel data set;employment and unemployment;efficiency of investment;consumption per capita;average income gain;informal sector employment;special economic zone;intergovernmental fiscal arrangement;labor market model;benefits of migration;analysis of poverty;cost of employment;information on migration;poverty gap measure;urban informal sector;degree of poverty;high poverty line;rural area;modern sector;Job Creation;Rural Sector;job generation;employment rate;migration costs;policy question;empirical relevance;rural population;informal city;equilibrium value;poverty reducing;rural income;poverty index;urban sector;rural-urban migration;informal employment;Basic Education;population share;urban investment;equilibrium condition;unemployment rate;density function;equilibrium outcome;secondary city;migration streams;urban location;poverty outcome;basic structure;migration destination;rural hinterland;migration decision;Political Economy;wage gap;relative value;empirical support;poverty impact;relative poverty;global poverty;wage inequality;median income;migrant flow;search cost;seasonal migration;sector analysis;Economic Mobility;cities alliance;human migration;wage set;dual economy;urban unemployment;data issue;income profile;poverty effect;high probability;empirical example;migration literature;cost differential;development theory;destination location;private incentives;exogenous parameter;risk neutrality;basic model;skill acquisition;previous work;migration pattern;Informal Jobs;parameter value;consumption datum;attrition rates;wage employment;rural employment;income data;discount factor;income parameter;declining poverty;rural migrant;empirical literature;policy stance;employment generation;Urban Governance;transportation cost;education level;labor income;open access;development policy;national population;income differential;moving parts;poverty comparison;poor household;income range;international community;adult equivalent;consumption variable;measurement error;



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