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Forests in fragile and conflict-affected states (Inglês)

A significant body of research over the last decade has demonstrated the linkage between poverty, armed conflict, and weak state governance. Further, some analysts have noted that rigid adherence to a template of structural adjustment and austerity measures while neglecting the roles of governance weakness and insecurity in development has often failed to produce the economic growth these reforms were intended to stimulate. As a result, academics and development practitioners, including the World Bank, have increasingly recognized that states exemplifying this nexus of human vulnerability and state failure suffer from a complex array of weaknesses, including in economic management, but also in political legitimacy, regulatory quality, social inclusion, provision of physical security and basic services, which therefore require a diverse mix of interventions. Such states have come to be known as 'fragile states'. Further, analysis of the association between forests and conflict has focused primarily on correlations, leaving the causal pathways between forests, weakened governance and violence poorly understood. For example, the dependence on forest income (as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP) has been demonstrated to be a poor predictor of violent conflict. Likewise, the proportion of national land area under forest cover is a poor predictor of state fragility or of outbreaks of armed civil or international conflict. Indeed, there is no correlation whatsoever with the likelihood of a country falling becoming a failed state and the percent of its land area under forest.


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    Harwell, Emily

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    Forests in fragile and conflict-affected states

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    Fragile & Conflict-Affected States;sustainable use of forest;access to government service;short period of time;impact of conflict;access to forest;Rule of Law;role of forests;Armed Conflict;risk of conflict;fund for peace;post conflict setting;global public good;management of forest;sustainable forest management;absence of incentive;conversion of forest;livestock price increase;conflicts of interest;displacement of people;loss of livestock;chain of custody;community forest management;flow of good;loss of forest;state of knowledge;long term investment;area of forest;conservation of forest;demand for timber;skill and technology;road and bridges;flow of refugees;source of revenue;impact of intervention;overestimate of production;destruction of resource;control of land;conflict and fragility;access to sea;long-term management;post conflict countries;share of resource;natural resource sector;types of reforms;empowerment of communities;long term commitment;fragile states;donor community;Natural Resources;forest sector;Violent Conflict;financial flow;local livelihoods;Civil War;criminal networks;logging operations;political will;peace agreement;forest product;governance institutions;international market;social inclusion;forest carbon;logging company;navigable river;cross border;resource rent;forest concession;forestry sector;criminal gangs;global forest;adequate oversight;discipline problem;land area;Conflict Prevention;political elite;civil society;future research;Economic Management;Resource Curse;state failure;Physical securities;external influence;displacement camp;political interference;state power;qualitative data;point source;construction material;oversight mechanism;forestry companies;forested areas;government institution;illegal timber;global economy;tree crop;forest extraction;Rural Poor;strategic value;regulatory quality;global demand;forest governance;precious minerals;state legitimacy;asset stripping;sustainable management;shadow economy;commodity boom;timber product;forest industries;quantitative evidence;political legitimacy;remote location;ecosystem service;criminal group;trade route;Public Spending;paradigm shift;private interest;dysfunctional government;investment policy;ethnic violence;essential commodities;palm oil;resource extraction;resource degradation;consumer good;econometric evidence;illegal traffic;legal right;IDA countries;employment program;economic diversification;illicit drug;cutting issues;commodity extraction;donor agencies;risk assessment;benefit stream;analytical method;statistical analyses;downward spiral;government authority;poverty elimination;organized crime;state control;external data;political factor;mountainous terrain;electoral violence;core functions;Macroeconomic Management;genetic material;whistleblower protection;ecosystem function;timber production;resource-rich country;local partner;societal aspect;mitigation mechanism;peace negotiation;cultural meaning;soil fertility;high pressure;accountability mechanism;Ethnic Minorities;rubber sector;quantitative data;security situation;government control;forestry research;forest policies;cultural value;fuelwood use;essential services;natural asset;Land tenure;commodity trade;concession model;community for use;industrial operation;land reform;land conflicts;land right;institutional mechanism;local poverty;structural adjustment;austerity measures;Resource export;transparent use;political patronage;personal enrichment;international conflict;econometric analysis;global trade;national territory;extractive resource;remote operation;sound management;forest coverage;high vulnerability;market demand;armed militia;trade regulation;short supply;transnational network;shell company;criminal activity;social network;financial reserve;transitional government;potential contribution;allocation process;central authority;oil palm;rebel movement;criminal fund;field study;porous borders;significant challenge;statistical correlation;financial capital



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