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World Development Report 2020 : Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains (Vol. 2) : Overview (Francês)

Global value chains (GVCs) powered the surge of international trade after 1990 and now account for almost half of all trade. This shift enabled an unprecedented economic convergence: poor countries grew rapidly and began to catch up with richer countries. Since the 2008 global financial crisis, however, the growth of trade has been sluggish and the expansion of GVCs has stalled. Meanwhile, serious threats have emerged to the model of trade-led growth. New technologies could draw production closer to the consumer and reduce the demand for labor. And conflicts among large countries could lead to a retrenchment or a segmentation of GVCs. This book examines whether there is still a path to development through GVCs and trade. It concludes that technological change is, at this stage, more a boon than a curse. GVCs can continue to boost growth, create better jobs, and reduce poverty provided that developing countries implement deeper reforms to promote GVC participation; industrial countries pursue open, predictable policies; and all countries revive multilateral cooperation.


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    political economy of trade policy; enforcement of competition policy; poverty elasticity of growth; trade and gender; early stage of development; active labor market program; transport and logistics services; information and communication technology; state-owned firms; global value chain; global financial crisis; foreign direct investment; international trade system; demand for labor; intellectual property rights; reduction in poverty; fragmentation of production; per capita income; market access commitment; interests of consumer; access to capital; safety and health; increase income inequality; Letter of Credit; low trade barriers; high growth rate; forms of participation; misallocation of resources; million people; terms of skills; overvalued exchange rate; form of regulation; changes in inequality; cost of labor; barriers to trade; domestic resource mobilization; agriculture and service; world trade organization; large multinational corporation; investment promotion strategy; agricultural extension service; Climate for investment; pacific economic cooperation; privileges and immunity; international climate policy; investment and services; exchange rate misalignment; scale of production; scale production; Poverty & Inequality; greenhouse gas emission; access to equity; growth of trade; access to bank; demand for import; preferential trade agreement; industrial country; national policy; new technology; 3d printing; market size; global trade; technological change; policy predictability; production process; international cooperation; carbon pricing; management skill; global economy; labor standard; recent years; Business Climate; labor regulation; international economics; remote location; differential treatment; manufacturing sector; environmental degradation; richer countries; trading partner; foreign ownership; value added; introducing competition; bonded warehouse; multimodal transport; complementary policies; deep integration; human capital; transport service; market failure; communications infrastructure; nontariff measure; local input; domestic demand; political stability; conformity assessment; working capital; adjustment assistance; adjustment policy; industrial good; contract enforcement; promoting competition; managerial skill; advanced skill; improving customs; goods trade; business service; investment climate; port structure; trade costs; productivity growth; geographical area; regulatory barrier; investment policy; tariff cut; tax incentive; Tax Exemption; content requirement; domestic capacity; exporting firms; industrial economics; transaction cost; business-to-business e-commerce; competitive market; trade effect; global production; export platform; imf staff; lower price; global development; regulatory commitment; education competition; initial distribution; cross-border mobility; anticompetitive practices; income shifting; fixed effect; industrial worker; fair access; labor participation; multilateral cooperation; economic convergence; chemical use; regional hub; electronic publishing; environmental benefit; wage inequality; production sharing; foreign investor; Competition Law; Environmental Policy; assessment tool; policy uncertainty; trade rule; trade cooperation; environmental regulation; beneficial trade; co2 emission; trade practices; production subsidy; global income; global growth; Industrial Goods; regional initiative; working condition; Global Operations; support worker; long-term outcome; income loss; paying job; automotive sector; new job; competitive neutrality; intangible asset; fragmented production; necessary investment; electronic documentation; customs union; equal partner; trade negotiation; vested interests; export interest; labor program; preferential agreement; restrictive rule; leather good; trade discrimination; largest markets; foreign import; trade preference; cross border; investor protection; carbon dioxide; lower value; woman owner; national border; traded goods; harmful effect



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