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Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management : regulatory and economic instruments (Inglês)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, this paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs. Given the lack of consensus in this area, the paper does not intend to provide normative guidelines.


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    Bernstein, Janis D.

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    Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management : regulatory and economic instruments

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    economic instrument;pollution control;addition of lead to gasoline;effects of land use;advantage of economies of scale;marginal cost of treatment;pollution control technology;urban environmental data collection;ambient air quality standard;emission charge;land use control;ambient water quality;marketable permit;environmental quality standard;Waste Management;air pollution control;urban environmental problem;effluent standard;unit of pollution;land and water;water quality standard;Performance Standards;direct regulation;incentives to polluters;water pollution control;alleviation of poverty;water quality objective;capacity building component;Solid Waste Management;pollution control equipment;pollution charge system;source of revenue;environmental management strategy;damages from pollution;consumption of products;auction of permit;waste management program;form of regulation;geographic information system;damage to natural;body of water;local water body;concentration of pollutant;ad valorem tax;pollution control techniques;types of instrument;emission of pollutant;amount of fish;pollution control agency;terms of performance;implementation of regulation;stratospheric ozone depletion;global environmental problem;nonpoint source pollution;waste management problem;pollution control system;pollution control devices;hazardous waste management;urban waste management;number of beneficiaries;source of pollution;number of victims;discharge of wastewater;compliance with standard;waste management policy;pollution control actions;chronic health problems;implementing pollution control;pollution control regulation;pollution control responsibility;discharge permit;regulatory instrument;administrative charge;environmental objective;emission trading;product standard;emission standard;ground water;Environmental Policy;



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